All praise is due to Allah and may the peace and blessings of Allah be upon the Seal of the Prophets, Muhammad (Peace be upon him). The basis for this paper is the concept of Tawakkul, its levels and its benefits. Tawakkul itself translates as ‘trust and reliance’ which means that in a way, it is quite dualistic and has two different facets which are not independent of each other, but are interlinked. The ayah which first comes to mind when we think of Tawakkul (or trust and reliance in Allah) is,
|‘And He will provide him from (sources) he could never imagine. And whoever puts their trust in Allah, then He will suffice him. Verily, Allah will accomplish His purpose. Indeed, Allah has set a measure for all things.’ |
The root of Tawakkul is ‘reliance’ or ‘dependence’. We say that we depend on Allah (The Most High) for everything, and place reliance on Him. This is the reality of Tawakkul in that we place our trust and reliance on Allah (The Most High), in terms of both our worldly affairs, as well as our Deen. As well as utilising our visceral, or tangible means of attaining that which we want to attain. Tawakkul therefore involves belief, dependence, and action. This is because in order to gain at least some level of Tawakkul, the slave needs to be aware of the fact that all the matters of this world and the Hereafter lie in the Hands of Allah (The Most High). Nothing occurs except by His Permission and His Leave. It is worth noting that depending upon Allah in attaining one’s provision is itself a form of worship, and is from the completion and perfection of one’s Iman. It is a realisation of the verse from Umm-ul-Quran, ‘You alone we worship, You alone we ask for help’ and is a requirement of one’s Iman because depending on other than Allah (The Most High) for that which Allah (The Most High) alone can provide, or (in the case of a tribulation, Allah alone can save a person from), is major Shirk. As Allah (The Most High) says
|‘so worship Him and put your trust in Him. And your Lord is not unaware of what you do’|
. We also know that He states in Surah Al-Anfal, referring to the qualities of Al-Mu’minoon:
|‘The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Verses are recited to them, they increase their Faith; and they put their trust in their Lord.’|
Another such reference which we spend our nights reading, is contained in Surah Al-Mulk,
|‘Say: “He is the Most Gracious (Allah) in Him we believe, and in Him we put our trust. So, you will come to know who it is that is in manifest error.’ |
We also have many, many examples from our Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) including examples of certain supplications which he made. In an authentic hadith contained in Bukhari and Muslim, Ibn Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) used to supplicate
|‘O Allah! To You I have submitted, and in You do I believe, and in You I put my trust, to You do I turn, and for You I argued. O Allah, I seek refuge with You through Your Power; there is none worthy of worship except You Alone; that You safeguard me against going astray. You are the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists; the One Who never dies, whereas human beings and jinn will all die’.|
What this demonstrates is just how necessary this trust and reliance on Allah is, whereby we make Allah the disposer of our affairs. As it becomes clear from the aforementioned hadith, Tawakkul is interlinked, interfused even, with submission to Allah, and belief in Allah. This becomes apparent in the hadith, ‘O Allah! To You I have submitted, and in You do I believe, and in You I put my trust’. In a single breath the Prophet (Peace be upon him) refers to submission, Iman, and Tawakkul. In another hadith showing the importance of Tawakkul and its benefits in this world and the Hereafter, Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported: The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said,
|‘A group of people (both men and women) whose hearts will be like the hearts of birds, will enter Jannah’ (Muslim).|
According to the renowned author of Riyadh As Saliheen, this Hadith has been interpreted to mean that it is those people who put their trust in Allah who will be in Jannah. Under this interpretation, there seems to be direct correlation between the way the people of Tawakkul lived their lives in this world, and their reward. It is the people of Tawakkul who would never have worried about their provisions, food, and means of subsistence, and are like the birds who do not collect any food to keep in reserve but go out every morning in search of food, hoping for and believing in Allah’s provision, and then returning home to their nests fully satisfied.Those who have Tawakkul do not abandon material resources, the ‘tying of the camel’, as it were. We all know the Hadith in which the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said to the Bedouin who had left his camel without tying it, to ‘tie your camel and place your trust in Allah’. The people of Tawakkul know the balance between action and trust in Allah (The Most High). Before we move onto the next section of this paper, it is worth noting what one of our famous scholars of the past has said about Tawakkul. In Madaarij us-Saalikeen, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah (may Allah have mercy upon him) notes:
|‘The condition of the one who relies on Allah is like the condition of the one who is given a dirham by a King, then it gets stolen from him; so the King says to him: “I have many times as much as that, so don’t worry. When you come to me, I will give you from my treasures much more than that.” Thus if (this person) knows the truthfulness of the king’s statement, and trusts him, and knows that his treasures are full of that, then what he missed will not make him sad.’|
There is much more that can be stated about Tawakkul but for the purposes of succinctness, we will now move onto the levels of Tawakkul. There are said to be levels of Tawakkul and these are easier to understand if we remember that Tawhid itself is the basis for Tawakkul. As for the levels of Tawakkul, then the first level is to know Allah by His qualities and attributes, such as the fact that he is all capable and sufficient to rely on; that He is the Sustainer and that He is All–Knowing and that things can only happen with His Will and Decree.
The second pillar is to believe that every matter has a cause or a means. Some people give up utilizing these means due to their ignorance, and think that this is reliance on Allah (The Most High). This causes people to become like those who wait for ‘the miracle to drop from the sky’ without striving towards it in any way. Such people wait for Allah to send down their provisions, feed them and take care of their concerns and affairs while they do nothing. In Arabic, this is called “tawaakul” (تواكل); the difference may be one letter, but it is significant enough; we should not be complacent or stagnant; we should do everything that’s available to us to reach our goals.
The third level is to remain firm in relying on Allah alone. Indeed, a person’s reliance on Allah cannot be fulfilled until one relies on Him alone. Support for this level can be found in the verse,
|‘If Allah helps you, none can overcome you; and if He forsakes you, who is there after Him that can help you? And in Allah (Alone) let the believers put their trust’.|
The fourth level is to depend on Allah wholeheartedly and feel tranquillity when doing so, to the extent that one does not feel anxious or confused about their provision. Some people do not feel secure until they utilize these means, and if Allah decrees that these means are not available they feel overwrought. Such people’s reliance on Allah is incomplete, because true reliance is when a person does not care if means are available or not, because they know that all matters are in the Hands of Allah. All Allah (The Most High) has to do for a matter to occur is say
|‘Be! And it becomes’.|
Of course, a person will have to utilise all the means available to them also.
The highest level of Tawakkul, towards which we should all strive of course, is to realize that the essence of reliance on Allah is to entrust all matters to him willingly, without feeling forced to do so.
|‘Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope’.|
Moreover, Tawakkul also gives us a good understanding of the balance to be had between putting our trust and reliance on Allah (The Most High) willingly on the one hand, and our individual responsibility inutilising the means available on the other.
Another consequence of Tawakkul is that it invites us to connect to a powerful Ally: this is the Lord Himself, Allah (The Most High). The more we rely on Him, the greater the chances that we will try to please Him by following the guidance He has given us.The third consequence of Tawakkul is that we are not depressed by what we have lost or intoxicated by our success. As Allah (The Most High) states
|‘In order that you may not grieve at the things over that you fail to get, nor rejoice over that which has been given to you. And Allah likes not every prideful boaster.’|
In closing, the one who entrusts Allah (The Most High) does so with the certainty that what Allah (The Most High) decrees is best for them, even if it is apparently the opposite of what they believe to be good. Such a person is content with the decrees of Allah (The Most High) as they know whatever is decreed is best for them, whether the benefit is apparent or not.
Relying on Allah (The Most High) can instil an enormous amount of peace and contentment in a person, and we ask Allah (The Most High) that He helps us all attain the highest degree of Tawakkul, in order that by His Permission, we may benefit from that in this world, and in the eternal world of the Hereafter.
 Quran, 65:3.
 Quran, 11:23.
 Quran, 8:2.
 Quran, 67:29.
 Quran, 3:160.
 Quran, 36:82.
 Quran, 57:23.