Humility in Prayer

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With the Name of Allâh, and in Him we seek assistance, and the praise is due
to Allâh, Lord of the Worlds. The praise is due to Allâh, the One who
compels the hearts that are despondent for His sake, and the One who forgives
the sins of the sinners by His Virtue. I testify that there is no deity
worthy of worship besides Allâh alone, without any associate, and there is
nothing comparable to Him. And I testify that Muhammad is His servant and
Messenger. He sent him (sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) with the guidance and
the True Religion, so as to make it apparent over all other religions. And
He gave him the choice of being either a Prophet-King, or a Slave-Messenger,
so he chose the station of servitude (‘ubûdiyyah), along with the
Messengership. [1]

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And he (sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to say,

 “ “O Allâh, make me live
in poverty, and make me die in poverty, and raise me up along with the poor.”
[2]

Thus, he (sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) alluded to the nobility of this
station and its virtue. And may the most complete peace be upon his Family,
and his Companions, and all those who hold onto his rope. To proceed:

So verily the Glorified and Exalted praises in His Book, those who laud Him,
and those who are humiliated towards His Magnificence, those who are
subservient (al-khâdi’een) and the humble (al-khâshi’în) to Him. Allâh
the Exalted says:

And He described with khushû’ (humility) the Believers who have the noblest
worship, which they preserve, so He said:

  “Verily they used to hasten towards good deeds, and they used to supplicate
to Us in hope and fear. And they were humble (khâshi’în) towards Us.”
[Sûratul-Anbiyâ’ 33:35]

And He described with humility, those who have been given knowledge, where
His Words are authoritative, so He said:

  “Indeed the Believers are successful, those who are humble in their Prayer.”
[Sûratul-Mu’minûn 23:1-2]

And the basis of humility (khushû’) is softness, gentleness, tranquility,
subservience, subjugation, and burning of the heart. So when the heart is
humble, all of the limbs and body parts follow it in humility. Because they
are followers of it; as he (sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said,

  “Verily those who were given knowledge before it (the Qur’ân), when it is
recited to them, they fall upon their faces in prostration, and they say,
“Glorified is our Lord! Indeed the Promise of our Lord has been fulfilled.”
And they fall upon their faces weeping, and it (the Qur’ân) increases them
in humility.” [Sûratul-Isrâ’ 17:107-109]
 “ “Verily
there is a small morsel of the body, if it is rectified, the whole body is
rectified; and if it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt. Indeed it is the
heart.” [3]

So if the heart is submissive, the eyes, ears, head, face, and the rest of
the limbs are submissive; the same goes for whatever emanates from them, to
the extent that it reaches the speech. Due to this, the Prophet (sallallâhu
‘alayhi wa sallam) used to say in the rukû’ (bowing) of his Prayer, “My
sight, hearing, mind, and bone are subservient to You.”
And he said in
another narration, “And whatever is carried upon my feet.” [4]

And someone from the Salaf saw a man fiddling with his hand during the
Prayer, so he said, “If his heart was submissive, his limbs would have become
subservient.”
[5] And this has been reported from Hudhayfah (radiyallâhu
‘anhu) and Sa’îd Ibnul-Musayyib, [6]and it has been reported in marfû’ [7]
form, however, its chain of narrators is not authentic. [8]

Al-Mas’ûdî said: From Abî Sinân: from the one who informed him: from
‘Alî Ibn Abî Tâlib (radiyallâhu ‘anhu), who said concerning the statement
of Allâh, “Those who are humble in their Prayer.” [Sûratul-Mu’minûn 23:2]:
“It is the humility in the heart, and it is that you soften your side towards
the Muslim, and that you do not look around during your Prayer.” [9]

And ‘Atâ’ Ibnus-Sâ’ib said: From a man: From ‘Alî (radiyallâhu ‘anhu) who
said,

  “Humility (khushû’) is the humility of the heart, and that you do not
look around to the right, nor the left.”

And ‘Alî Ibn Abî Talhah said: From Ibn ‘Abbâs (radiyallâhu ‘anhu) who
said concerning the statement of Allâh the Exalted,“Those who are humble in
their Prayer.”
: “They are fearful and tranquil.”

And Ibn [10 ]Shawdhab said: From al-Hasan (rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ)who said,

  “They used to have khushû’ in their hearts, so due to that, they lowered
their gaze in the Prayer.”

And Ibn Abî Najîh said: From Mujâhid (rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ) who said
concerning the statement of Allâh the Exalted: “And they were humble towards
Us.”
[Sûratul-Anbiyâ’ 21:90]: “ Those who have humility (mutawâdi’în).”

[11 ]And indeed Allâh the Exalted described the earth with khushû’ in His
Book, so He said:

So this trembling and growth raises it removing its khushû’, so this shows
that the khushû’ which it was upon was its tranquility and ease. Likewise
therefore, is the heart; so it soothes its inclinations and base desires –
which emanate from following passions – and it becomes subjugated and
subservient to Allâh. So due to that, whatever it has inside from
arrogance, haughtiness and pride is removed, and when that tranquility takes
place in the heart, all the body parts, limbs and movements become humble, to
the extent that the humility reaches the voice. And indeed Allâh the
Exalted has described the voices with khushû’ in His statement:

  “And from His Signs is that you see the earth stilled (khâshi’ah). So when
We send water down upon it, it trembles and grows.” [Sûratul-Fussilat 41:39]

So the humility of the voices is their tranquility and ease after being
raised.

And likewise, the faces and eyes of the disbelievers on the Day of Judgement
have been described with khushû’, so that proves the entering of khushû’
(humility) into all of the limbs. And when man is forced to present humility
in his limbs and body-parts, with a heart that is void of humility and
detached from it; that is the hypocritical humility. And this is something
the Salaf used to seek refuge from, as one of them said, “Seek refuge from
the hypocritical humility (khushû’un-nifâq).”
They said, ‘And what is
hypocritical humility?’
He said, “When you see the body humbled, but the
heart is not humbled.”
[12]

And ‘Umar (radiyallâhu ‘anhu) looked at a youth who was lowering his head,
so he said to him, “What is this! Raise your head, since the outward
humility does not increase what is in the heart.”

So whoever manifests humility other than that which is in his heart, then it
is only hypocrisy upon hypocrisy.

And the basis of humility is what occurs in the heart, it is only attained
through recognition (ma’rifah) of Allâh, and the recognition (ma’rifah) of
His Magnificence, and the recognition of His Sublimity, and His Perfection;
so the more one recognizes Allâh, the more humble he becomes. [13]

And the humility (khushû’) of the hearts varies in accordance with the
different levels of recognition (ma’rifah) for the person being humble, and
it also differs with the heart’s varying levels of observance of the
attributes necessary for humility. So whoever is intensely humble, his
meditation upon the closeness of Allâh to His servant – which is in secrecy
and in his innermost conscience – necessitates him developing shame in front
of Allâh the Exalted, and contemplating over Him in his actions and moments
of ease. And whoever humbly meditates upon His Perfection and Beauty, it
will necessitate his being immersed in love for Him, and ardently desiring to
meet Him and see Him. And whoever humbly meditates upon the severity of His
Power, and His Revenge, and His Punishment; it necessitates that he become
fearful of Him, and He is free of all imperfections, the Exalted, Compellor
of the hearts which become enslaved for His sake. And He is the one free of
all imperfections, the Exalted, and the one who places his face upon the dust
in prostration draws nearer to Him as a result, just as His servants draw
nearer to Him, those who supplicate to Him, and ask Him, and those who seek
forgiveness for their sins at daybreak; and He answers their supplications,
and He gives them what they ask for, and the servant does not have any
greater compellor of enslavement than the Nearness and Answering (of Allâh).

Imâm Ahmad (d.241H) – rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ – relates in his book,
az-Zuhd, [14] with his chain of narrators coming from ‘Imrân Ibn Qasîr who
said,

  “And the voices will be humbled for ar-Rahmân (the Most Merciful).” [Sûrah
Tâ Hâ 20:108]
  “Mûsâ (‘alayhis-salâm) said, “My Lord, where can I attain Your
Pleasure?”He said, “(My servants) when their hearts are enslaved for My
sake. Verily I draw nearer to them by a hand-span everyday, so if that did
not happen, they would be destroyed.””

And Ibrâhîm Ibnul-Junayd (rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ) relates in the book
al-Muhabbah: From Ja’far Ibn Sulaymân who said: I heard Mâlik Ibn Dînâr
saying,

  “Mûsâ (‘alayhis-salâm) said, “O Mûsâ, (My servants) seek My
Pleasure when their hearts are enslaved for My sake, so verily I draw nearer
to them by a handspan everyday, and if that did not happen, they would have
been destroyed.”” Ja’far said: So I said to Mâlik Ibn Dînâr, “How are
their hearts enslaved?” He said, “I asked the one who read the book to me,
so he said: I asked the one who asked ‘Abdullâh Ibn Salâm about the
enslavement of their hearts, how are they enslaved? He said: They are
enslaved by the love of Allâh the Mighty and Majestic.”

And indeed their occurs in the authentic Sunnah, that which testifies to the
closeness of Allâh to the heart that is enslaved during His affliction,
patient with the Decree of Allâh and pleased with it. It is reported in
Sahîh Muslim: From Abî Hurayrah (radiyallâhu ‘anhu), from the Prophet
(sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) that he said, “Allâh the Mighty and Majestic
will say upon the Day of Judgement,

 “ ‘O son of Âdam, I fell ill and you did
not visit Me.’ He will say, ‘Lord, how could I visit You, and You are the
Lord of the Worlds?’ He will say, ‘Did you not know that My servant so and
so was ill, and yet you did to visit him? Did you not know that had you
visited him, you would have found Me with him?'” [15]

And Abû Nu’aym relates by way of Hamzah Ibn Shawdhab who said,

  “Allâh
revealed to Mûsâ (‘alayhis-salâm), ‘Do you know for which reason I chose
you over the rest of the people to carry My Message and My Speech?’ He said,
‘No, O Lord!’ He said, ‘No one has shown more humility towards Me than your
humility (tawâdu’).'”

And this humility of his was khushû’, and it was
beneficial knowledge, and was the first thing from knowledge to be raised up.
So an-Nisâ’î [16 ]relates a hadîth from Jubayr Ibn Nufayr (radiyallâhu
‘anhu): From ‘Awf Ibn Mâlik (radiyallâhu ‘anhu) that the Messenger of
Allâh (sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) looked towards the sky one day and
said, “This is a time when the knowledge will be raised up.” So a man from
the Ansâr (the helpers) said that Zayd Ibn Labîd said to him, ‘O Messenger
of Allâh, will the knowledge be raised up whilst the hearts are still firmly
established and heedful?’
The Messenger of Allâh (sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa
sallam) said to him, “Verily I thought that you were from the most
knowledgeable people of al-Madînah.”
, and he mentioned that the Jews and the
Christians were misguided, even though the Book of Allâh the Mighty and
Majestic was in front of them. So he said, “‘Awf Ibn Mâlik has spoken
truthfully, should I not inform you what will be the first thing to be raised
up?”
I said, ‘Yes.’ He said, “It is humility, until you will not even see
one humble person.”

And at-Tirmidhî [17 ]relates a hadîth from Jubayr Ibn Nufayr from
Abud-Dardâ’, and he informed him of what he said, so he said, “Abud-Dardâ’
has spoken truthfully. If you wish, I will inform you of the first knowledge
to be raised up: the khushû’; to the extent that if you enter a
congregational mosque, then you will not see a single humble man in it.”
And
indeed it was said that the hadîth of an-Nisâ’î was more authentic.

And Sa’îd Ibn Bashîr related from al-Hasan (rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ): From
Shaddâd Ibn Aws, from the Prophet (sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) who said,
“The first thing that will be raised up from the people will be khushû’.”so
he mentioned the rest of it. [18]

And it was related by Abû Bakr Ibn Abî Maryam from Hamzah Ibn Habîb in
mursal [19 ]form. And the like of it has been reported from Hudhayfah, from
his statement.

So the beneficial knowledge is that which brings glad tidings to the heart,
so it obligates tranquility, fear, subjugation towards Allâh, humility, and
humiliation. If the knowledge does not bring glad tidings to the heart, and
it is something that exists only upon the tongue, then it is the proof of
Allâh upon the son of Âdam, established upon its possessor, or other than
him. Since Ibn Mas’ûd (radiyallâhu ‘anhu) said, that there would come a
time when there would be a people reciting the Qur’ân, but it would not pass
beyond their collarbones. [20 ]However, if it exists in the heart and becomes
firmly rooted in it, it benefits its possessor. And al-Hasan said,

  “Knowledge is of two types, the knowledge of the tongue, and the knowledge of
the heart. So the knowledge of the heart is the beneficial knowledge, and
the knowledge of the tongue is the proof of Allâh upon the son of Âdam.”
[21
]

And it has been related in mursal form from al-Hasan (rahimahullâhu
ta’âlâ) from the Prophet (sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). [22 ]And he also
reported it from Jâbir (radiyallâhu ‘anhu) in marfû’ form [23 ]and it has
also been reported by him from Anas (radiyallâhu ‘anhu) in marfû’ form,
[24 ]and its chain of narrators is not authentic.

So the Prophet (sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) informed that the knowledge
was with the people of the two books before us, and they were not benefited
by anything from it, since they failed to realize its objective. And if it
had reached their hearts, they would have found the sweetness of îmân
(faith) by it, and it would have benefited them by connecting them to fear
and turning their hearts around. And if it is only upon their tongues, it
will establish the proof of Allâh upon them.

And due to this meaning, Allâh the Glorified described the scholars with
fear (khashyah) in His Book, as Allâh the Exalted says:

And He also says:

  “Verily the most fearful of Allâh from His servants are the scholars.”
[Sûrah Fâtir 35:28]

And the scholars from the people of the Book before us have been described
with humility, as Allâh the Exalted says:

  “Is one who is devoutly obedient during periods of the night, prostrating and
standing, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the mercy of his Lord (like
one who does not)? Say, are those who know equal to those who do not know?
Only the people of understanding will remember.” [Sûratuz-Zumar 39:9]

And in the statement of Allâh the Exalted – in describing those who have
been given knowledge – is praise for the one who develops khushû’ in his
heart upon listening to the Book of Allâh, and Allâh the Exalted says:

  “Say, believe in it, or do not believe. Verily those who were given
knowledge before it (the Qur’ân), when it is recited to them, they fall upon
their faces in prostration. And they say, “Glorified is our Lord! Verily
the Promise of our Lord has been fulfilled.” And they fall upon their faces
weeping, and it (the Qur’ân) increases them in humility.” [Sûratul-Isrâ’
17:107-109]

And the softness of the heart is when its harshness ceases to occur, and it
develops humility and mildness.

And indeed Allâh despises those who develop humility in their hearts upon
hearing the Book of Allâh, and those who do not reflect upon it, Allâh the
Exalted says:

  “So woe to those whose hearts have been hardened against the remembrance of
Allâh, those are clearly misguided. Allâh has sent down the best
statement, a consistent Book wherein is reiteration. The skins shiver
therefrom of those who fear their Lord, then there skins and their hearts
become soft at the remembrance of Allâh.” [Sûratuz-Zumar 39:22-23]

Ibn Mas’ûd (radiyallâhu ‘anhu) said, “We have not been rebuked by this
âyah, except after having accepted Islâm four years ago.”
It was related
by Muslim, [25 ]and an-Nisâ’î, [26 ]and he added to it, “So the Believers
placed blame upon each other.”

And Ibn Mâjah related a hadîth from az-Zubayr (radiyallâhu ‘anhu) who
said,

  “Has the time not come for those who have believed, that their hearts should
become humble at the remembrance of Allâh, and at what He has revealed of
the truth?” [Sûratul-Hadîd 57:16]
  “We have not been rebuked after embracing Islâm, until the revelation
of this âyah which occurred four years later.” [27]

And indeed many from amongst the righteous heard this âyah being recited, so
they were affected by it in different ways, so from these effects was for one
to die from it due to the aching of his heart from it, and from them was that
one would repent and leave off what the âyah spoke of. [28 ]And indeed we
have mentioned their reports in the book al-Istighnâ’ bil-Qur’ân. [29 ]And
Allâh the Exalted said:

Abû ‘Imrân al-Jawnî said,

  “And if We had sent this Qur’ân down upon a mountain, you would have seen it
humbled and broken apart from fear of Allâh.” [Sûratul-Hashr 59:21]
  “By Allâh, indeed our Lord has directed our
attention to this âyah of the Qur’ân, which if He had sent down upon the
mountain, it would have been obliterated and flattened out by it.”

And Mâlik Ibn Dînâr (rahimahullâh) read this âyah, then he said, “I
swear to you, no servant believes in this Qur’ân, except that his heart is
left aching.”
And it is related from al-Hasan (rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ) that
he said, “O son of Âdam, if Shaytân whispers to you with a sin, or if you
yourself are inclined towards it, then remember along with that what Allâh
bestowed upon you from His Book; that which if it was bestowed upon an
unshakable mountain, it would have been humbled and broken apart. Have you
not heard Him saying:

So these parables are only presented to you so that you may reflect upon
them, and so that you may receive admonishment with them from disobedience to
Allâh the Mighty and Majestic. And you – O son of Âdam – are most
deserving of becoming humbled by the remembrance of Allâh, and by whatever
you carry from His Book, and by whatever you have been given from His Wisdom;
because you will be judged, and for you is either Paradise or the Fire.

Indeed the Prophet (sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to seek refuge in
Allâh from the heart that is not humble, as is found in Sahîh Muslim: From
Zayd Ibn Arqam, that the Prophet (sallallâhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to say,

  “If We had sent down this Qur’ân upon a mountain, you would have seen it
humbled and broken apart from fear of Allâh.” [Sûratul-Hashr 59:21]
 “ “O Allâh, verily I seek refuge in You from knowledge that does not benefit,
and from the heart that is not humble, and from the soul that is not content,
and from the supplication that is not answered.” [30]

And the likes of this has been reported from the Prophet (sallallâhu ‘alayhi
wa sallam) through many paths. [31]

And it is related from Ka’b al-Ahbâr that he said, it written in the Bible,

  “O ‘Îsâ, he whose heart is not fearful, his knowledge will not benefit him,
and his voice will not be heard, and his supplication will not be raised up.”

And Asad Ibn Mûsâ said in the book al-Wara’: Mubârak Ibn Fudâlah informed
us that al-Hasan (rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ) used to say when this Call from
Allâh came to the Believers, they testified to its truth, and their firm
belief expanded in their hearts; and their hearts, bodies and eyes became
humbled before Allâh. “By Allâh, when I see them, it is as if I am looking
at a people with my own two eyes. So by Allâh, they are not from the people
of argumentation and falsehood, and they are not content, except with the
Book of Allâh; and they do not manifest that which is not in their hearts.
Rather, when a Command from Allâh comes to them, they testify to its truth;
so Allâh the Exalted has favoured them in the Qur’ân with the best
description. So He says:

He said, “They are the gentle ones, they do not act ignorantly; and if others
treat them ignorantly, they are mild. They are accompanied by the servants
of Allâh during their day by what they listen to, then they are engaged in
remembrance during their nights, in the best part of the night. So He said:

  “And the worshippers of the Most Merciful are those who walk upon the earth
gently, and when the ignorant address them, they say (words of) peace.”
[Sûratul-Furqân 25:63]

Their tears run down their cheeks in fear of their Lord.”

And al-Hasan (rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ) said, “They remain sleepless at night
due to a matter, and they remain humble during the day due to a certain
matter. He said:

  “And those who spend the night prostrating and standing for their Lord.”
[Sûratul-Furqân 25:54]

He said, “And everything that afflicts the son of Âdam and then leaves him,
then it is not a loss. The loss only remains as long as the skies and the
earth remain.” He said, “How truthful is the position of those people – and
by Allâh besides Whom there is no true Deity – so do good works, and you
have been given a trust, so take care of this trust. May Allâh have mercy
upon you, since Allâh does not give a servant a better trust than His;
whether it is in this world, or in the Hereafter.” And he used to say,

  “And those who say: Our Lord, save us from the punishment of Hell, verily its
punishment is ever adhering.” [Sûratul-Furqân 25:65]
  “O
what an admonishment, if only the hearts that are alive would take heed.”


[1] In al-Misriyyah: ‘.His Messenger.’

[2] An authentic hadeeth related through many paths. It was related by
at-Tirmidhee (2/56), and al-Bayhaqee (7/12), from Anas; and its isnaad (chain
of narrators) is weak (da’eef). In it is al-Haarith Ibnun-Nu’maan. It is
also related from the hadeeth of Abee Sa’eed in Ibn Maajah (no.4126), and
al-Khateeb in his Taareekh (4/111), and in it is Abul-Mubaarak and he is
unknown, and Yazeed Ibn Sinaan and there is weakness in him. Indeed
Ibnul-Jawzee ruled it to be weak in al-Mawdoo’aat (3/141), and
Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah doubted its authenticity in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa
(18/326), and he ruled it to be weak in Ahaadeethul-Qisaas (p. 101). And our
shaykh, al-Albaanee has authenticated it in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethus-Saheehah
(no. 308) after mentioning it with the narration of ‘Abd Ibn Humayd in
al-Muntajib minal-Musnad (2/110) from Abee Sa’eed. Its isnaad is hasan due
to itself, this has remained hidden from many of the scholars of Hadeeth of
the past. So there is no doubt that the hadeeth is saheeh (authentic) due to
other than itself. I say, the poverty mentioned in the hadeeth is humility
and submissiveness, as Ibnul-Atheer says in an-Nihaayah (2/380).

[3] This is part of a long hadeeth related by al-Bukhari (1/117), Muslim
(no. 1599), Ibn Maajah (no. 3984), ad-Daarimee (2/245), and Ahmad (4/269);
from Nu’maan Ibn Basheer (radiyAllahu ‘anhu).

[4] The first narration is related by Muslim (no. 771), at-Tirmidhee (no.
3417), Abu Daawood (no. 760), an-Nisaa’ee (2/130), Abu Ya’laa (no. 284,
574), and Ahmad (1/94); from ‘Alee (radiyAllahu ‘anhu). And the second
narration is related by Ahmad in al-Musnad (1/119), also from ‘Alee
(radiyAllahu ‘anhu).


[5] Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah attributed it to ‘Umar Ibnul-Khattaab
(radiyAllahu ‘anhu) in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa (18/273).


[6] It has been reported from Sa’eed by Ibnul-Mubaarak in az-Zuhd (no. 1188),
and there is anonymity in it.

[7] Translators Note: Shaykh ‘Abdul-Muhsin al-‘Abbaad says, “The marfoo’
(raised) narration is anything that can be attached to the Messenger of
Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) from statements, tacit approvals, or a
ruling; and it is of six types, and they are:

1) al-Qawlee Sareehan (clear statement): The example of this is when a
Companion says, ‘I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa
sallam) say such and such.’, or he says it himself, or other than him, that
the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said such and such.
2) al-Fi’lee Sareehan (clear action): The example of this is when a
Companions says, ‘I saw the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa
sallam) do such and such.’, or he does it himself, or other than him, that
the Messenger of Allah (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did such and such. 3)
at-Taqreeree Sareehan (clear approval): The example of this is when the
Companion says, ‘I did such and such in the presence of the Messenger of
Allah.’, or he says it himself, or other than him, that a person did such
and such in the presence of the Prophet, and he did not disapprove of it. 4)
al-Qawlee Hukman (decisive statement): The example of this is when a
Companion – not known to take from the People of the Book – makes a statement
which could not possibly be his own opinion or reasoning (ijtihaad), and it
is not built around something obscure, nor does it have a problematic
explanation; like the reports about matters that have preceded, such as the
beginning of creation, or reports about matters to come, such as the fitan
(trials/tribulations), and the descriptions of the Day of Judgement. And
likewise are the reports about action by which one attains a specific reward,
or a specific punishment. 5) al-Fi’lee Hukman (decisive action): The example
of this is when a Companion performs an action that could not possibly come
from his own opinion, such as ‘Alee Ibn Abee Taalib (radiyAllahu ‘anhu)
performing more than two bowings in every rak’ah of Salaatul-Kusoof (the
Prayer for an Eclipse). 6) at-Taqreeree Hukman (tacit approval): The example
of this is when a Companion informs that they used to do something in the
time of the Prophet (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and he did not prohibit
them from this.

And from the versions of reports that require rafa’ (making marfoo’) are the
statements of the Companions, ‘Such and such is from the Sunnah.’, and ‘We
were commanded with such and such.’, or ‘We were prohibited from such and
such.’ Or it is when the Companion judges an action from the actions to be
obedience to Allah, or to His Messenger (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam);
such as the statement of ‘Ammaar Ibn Yaasir (radiyAllahu ‘anhu): “Whosoever
fasts upon the day of doubt, then indeed he has disobeyed Abul-Qaasim
(sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam).” It was related by al-Bukhari (4/119), and
by the People of the Sunan.” Refer to Min-Ateebil-Manah fee ‘Ilmil-Mustalah
(p. 46-47) of al-‘Allaamah ‘Abdul-Muhsin al-‘Abbaad.

[8] It is mentioned by as-Suyootee in al-Jaami’us-Sagheer (no. 4284), and he
attributed it to al-Hakeem at-Tirmidhee, from Abee Hurayrah, and he did
likewise in ad-Durrul-Manthoor (5/3). And he pointed out its weakness, and
more than one person from amongst the scholars have weakened it, and what is
correct is that it is fabricated (mawdoo’), since in its chain of narration
is Sulaymaan Ibn ‘Amr. Ibn ‘Adee says in al-Kamaal (3/1100), “There is
consensus upon him that he fabricated hadeeth.”

[9] It is related by Ibnul-Mubaarak in az-Zuhd (no. 1148), and by at-Tabaree
in his Tafseer (18/2), and by al-Haakim (2/393). And it is mentioned by
as-Suyootee in ad-Durrul-Manthoor (5/3), and he additionally attributed to
‘Abdur-Razzaaq, al-Firyaabee, ‘Abd Ibn Humayd, Ibnul-Mundhir, Ibn Abee
Haatim, and al-Bayhaqee. And his statement, ‘.your side.’ means, ‘.your
shoulders.’

[10] In the published version, it says ‘Abu’. And the correct position is
what we have affirmed, and his biography can be found in Tahdheebut-Tahdheeb
(5/255).

[11] It is found in his Tafseer (1/415).

[12] It is mentioned by as-Suyootee in ad-Durrul-Manthoor (5/3), and he
attributed it to Ibnul-Mubaarak, and Ahmad reported it in az-Zuhd, and Ibn
Abee Shaybah reported it from Abud-Dardaa’.

[13] Translators Note: This aspect of ma’rifatullaah (the recognition of
Allah) was stated by Imaam al-Bukhari (d.256H) – rahimahullaah – when he
said, “Chapter: the saying of the Prophet (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam): ‘I
have more knowledge of Allah than you all.’ And that ma’rifah (recognition)
is an action of the heart about which Allah the Exalted says: “But He will
call you to account for what your hearts have earned.” [Sooratul-Baqarah
2:225]” Refer to his Saheeh (1/88).

And the al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab himself commented, “So hearts will not be
corrected until the ma’rifah of Allah – being in awe of Him, loving Him,
fearing Him, relying and trusting in Him, hoping in Him – is not firmly
implanted in them. This is the reality of Tawheed and the meaning of the
statement Laa ilaahaa illAllah (None has the right to be worshipped except
Allah). So the hearts cannot be corrected until Allah is made the ilaah
(deity) to be known, loved, feared and hoped for; and that He becomes the
only deity (ilaah) worthy of this – without associating any partners with Him
in this. So know that the world – whatever is above and whatever is below in
the waters – will not be corrected, except when the actions of its people are
all for Allah’s sake. Since the actions of the body follow from the actions
and intentions of the heart, then when the heart’s actions and intentions are
only to Allah alone, then it is corrected, and all the actions of the body
will likewise be corrected. However, if the actions and intentions of the
heart are directed to other than Allah, then it is corrupted, and likewise,
all the actions of the body will be corrupted in proportion to how much the
heart has been corrupted.” Refer to Jaami’ul-‘Uloom wal-Hikam (p. 120) of
Ibn Rajab.

[14] Refer to (p. 61-69) from it, and it is not authentic.

[15] It is related by Muslim (no. 2569).

[16] It is in al-Kubraa (3/42), as is found in Tuhfatul-Ashraaf (8/211). And
it is related by al-Bazzaar (no. 232), Ahmad (6/26), and by at-Tabaraanee in
al-Kabeer (18/43), and in his Musnadush-Shaamiyyeen (no. 6867).

[17] It is related in his Jaami’ (no. 2655).


[18] It is related by Ahmad (6/26-27), and by at-Tabaraanee in al-Kabeer (no.
7183). And it was authenticated by our shaykh in Saheehul-Jaami’ (no. 2573),
and refer to Majma’uz-Zawaa’id (2/136).

[19] Translators Note: Shaykh ‘Abdul-Muhsin al-‘Abbaad – hafidhahullaah –
says: “The mursal is that which a taabi’ee raises to the Messenger of Allah
(sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), as if he is saying, “The Messenger of Allah
(sallAllahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said or did such and such.” It is derived
from the statement, ‘A she-camel is sent (rasala)’, that is to say, it is
faster. So it is as if the mursal is a faster path to the hadeeth, since
some of the isnaad is omitted. The mursal is included with the rejected
types of hadeeth, since we mention it with ignorance of the omitted narrator.
He could be a Companion, a taabi’ee, or trustworthy (thiqah), or other than
trustworthy.” Refer to Min Ateebil-Manah (p. 27).

[20] Translators Note: ‘Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood (radiyAllahu ‘anhumaa) said,
“We used to learn ten aayaat, not increasing upon them until we had
implemented them.” It is related by Ibn Jareer at-Tabaree with a saheeh
chain of narrators. Refer to Basaa’ir Dhush-Sharaf (p. 138) of Saleem
al-Hilaalee. Abu ‘Abdur-Rahmaan as-Sulamee (rahimahullaah) said, “Verily we
took this Qur’aan from a people about whom it was related to us, that if they
learned ten aayaat, they would not move onto another ten until they had
learned what was in them. So we used to learn the Qur’aan and implement it.
Verily the Qur’aan will be inherited by a people after us who will retain it
in a way that water is retained. It will not pass beyond their collarbones,
rather it will not pass beyond here.” – and he put his hand upon his throat.”
Refer to at-Tabaqaatul-Kubraa (6/172) of Ibn Sa’d.

[21] It is related by ad-Daarimee (1/102) who made a judgement upon it, and
its chain of narrators is authentic.


[22] It is related by Ibn ‘Abdul-Barr in his Jaami’ (1/190), and by
as-Suyootee mentions it in al-Jaami’us-Sagheer (no. 3882), and he
additionally attributed it to Ibn Abee Shaybah, and al-Haakim.

[23] It is related by al-Khateeb in his Taareekh (4/346), and in it is
weakness and anonymity (jihaalah).

[24] It is related by Abu Nu’aym and ad-Daylamee, as is found in
Faydul-Qadeer (4/391).

[25] Related by Muslim (no. 3027)

[26] It is found in the tafseer of his al-Kubraa, as can be seen in
Tuhfatul-Ashraaf (7/70).


[27] It is related by Ibn Maajah (no. 4192)

[28] This is found in the hadeeth of Fudayl Ibn ‘Iyaad, and refer to
ar-Risaalatul-Qushayriyyah (no. 11), and Tabaqaatul-Awliyaa (no. 267) of Ibn
Muflih.

[29] It is mentioned by al-Baghdaadee in Hadyatul-‘Aarifeen, as is mentioned
by Dr. Hammaam Sa’eed in al-‘Ilal fil-Hadeeth (p. 255). And I did not expect
to find it there, and he also mentioned that it is missing.

[30] It is related by Muslim (no. 2722), Ahmad (4/371), and an-Nisaa’ee
(8/260).

[31] The author (rahimahullaah) mentions this hadeeth and some of its
narrated meanings in his treatise Fadl ‘Ilmus-Salaf ‘alal-Khalaf (p. 23) with
my checking, so refer to its verification there.

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