Surah Fatihah: Its Revelation and Composition

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Its Revelation

It was revealed in Mecca as stated by ibn Abbaas, Qataadah and Abu al-Aaliyah.

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It is also postulated that it was revealed in Madeenah as stated by Abu Hurayrah, Mujaahid, `Ataa bin Yasaar and az-Zuhree. It is also said that it was revealed on two separate occasions – once in Mecca and once in Madeenah. However the first opinion is the most likely due to His saying,

  “We have sent to you the Seven Oft Repeated Verses.” [Al-Hijr (15): 87]

This verse was revealed in Mecca by agreement of the exegetes.

Abu al-Layth as-Samarqandee relates that half of it was revealed in Mecca and the remaining half in Madeenah as quoted from him by al-Qurtobee but this is an extremely strange position.

It is said that this chapter was the first thing revealed of the Qur`aan as mentioned in the hadeeth reported by al-Bayhaqee in ‘Dalaa`il an-Nubuwwa.’ Al-Baaqillaanee quoted this as one of three opinions. It is also said that the first revelation comprised the verses of Surah al-Muddaththir but the correct opinion is that the first revelation consisted of the beginning verses of Surah al-`Alaq.

Its Composition

It consists of seven verses and there is no difference concerning this. `Amr bin Ubaid said that it consists of eight verses and Husayn al-Ju`afee said that it consists of six verses but both of these opinions are irregular and rejected.

They have differed concerning the statement ‘with the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent,the Most Merciful.’ The majority of the reciters of Kufa postulate that it comprises an independent verse of al-Faatihah and this is also the opinion of a group of the Sahaabah, Taabi`een and a large group of the later scholars. However the reciters and jurists of Madeenah regard it to be part of a verse, and not an independent verse, or not a verse at all.

Those who postulate that it is not a verse of al-Faatihah state that the seventh verse commences with the words, “not the path of those who have earned [Your] Anger…”

They said, “Al-Faatihah consists of twenty-five words and one hundred and thirteen letters.”

(NOTE: If you want to build a strong and powerful relationship with Allah, check out Islamia TV, where you can watch Islamic speakers from across the globe deliver inspiring and motivational courses. Learn more at www.islamia.tv.)



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