Tafsir Aayatil Kursi

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All Praise is due to Allah. We praise Him, and seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge in Allah, Most High, from the evils of our own selves and from our wicked deeds. Whomever Allah guides cannot be misguided, and whomever He leads astray cannot be guided. I testify that there is no true God worthy of being worshipped except Allah, alone, without partner or associate. I further testify that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger. [1] May Allah’s salah and salaam also be granted to the Prophet’s pure family and to all of his noble companions.
Know, O Muslims, may Allah bestow upon us from His Mercy, that knowledge is the basis for the understanding and application of Islamic principles and laws. This is in accordance with the sayings of Allah, the Exalted:
So know [O! Muhammad] that la ilaaha illaAllah [none has the right to be worshipped but Allah]. [Qur’an, Surah Muhammad (47:19)].
In a related context, the Prophet affirmed that:
” He upon whom Allah intends goodness, He confers upon him a true understanding and keen insight into the din,” and [in the narration by Imam Al-Bukhari], he said: ” Truly knowledge is attained by learning.”[4]
Imam Al-Bukhari commented: “So Allah stated that one should acquire knowledge first, and scholars are the inheritors of the Prophets (i.e. they inherit knowledge).” He added: “It is essential to know a thing first before saying or acting upon it.” [5]
Imam ibnul Qayyim said:
“The salaf did not generalize the name “fiqh” except on the knowledge which is associated with action.” He further added: “al-’ilm Imamul-‘amal (Knowledge is the Imam of actions) and its leader, and al-’amal is adherent to knowledge and is led by it. Every action which is not led by knowledge is of no benefit for the one who initiates it. On the contrary, it inflicts harm upon him, just as some of the salaf said “Whoever worships Allah without knowledge, the mischief he causes is more than the goodness he may bring about.” He also stressed that: “Deeds vary with respect to their acceptance or rejection respectively depending upon their adherence or opposition to knowledge. Action which is in accordance with ‘ilm is an approved thing, and what opposes al-’ilm is repudiated. Knowledge, therefore, is the measure and is the test.
Allah said:
[Blessed be Allah] Who has created death that He may test you as to which of you is best in deeds, and He is al-’Aziz [Who subdues everything by His Might; the Mighty in His Revenge; the Unapproachable, none will prevail against Him; none is like unto Him], al-Ghafur [The One Who is Oft-Forgiving]. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Mulk (67:2)].
Al-Fudail bin ‘Iyad explained that, “The best of deeds are those which are done with sincerity [seeking Allah’s Face] and are upright.” They said, “What is considered sincere and right of the deeds?” He replied, “Deeds which are sincere but not correct are not accepted, and if they are correct but not sincere then they are also not accepted, until they are sincere and right. In order to be sincere, they must be done for Allah alone, and for them to be correct, they must comply with the [authentic] sunnah. Indeed Allah, Most High, says:
Whoever hopes for the meeting of his Rabb let him work righteousness and associate none as a partner in the worship of his Rabb [Allah]. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Kahf (18:110)].
The doer will not be able to act in a way which comprises both qualities (sincerity and rightness) except by the way of knowledge. For if he does not know what the Messenger brought, he will not be able to follow him in the straight way. On the other hand, if he does not know of the One Who deserves to worshipped alone [Allah], he will be unable to seek Him solely.”[6]
In the absolute sense, what is meant by al-’ilm (knowledge) is the Islamic knowledge, based upon kitaabullah [the Book of Allah, the Qur’an], and the authentic sunnah in accordance with the understanding and methodology (manhaj) of as-salaf as-salih Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Aziz bin Baz (hafithahullah: May Allah preserve him) explained: “When generalized, al-’ilm, pertains to the intended knowledge in the Book of Allah and the sunnah of His Messenger. It is knowledge of Allah, His Names and Attributes, knowledge of His rights over His creation, and what He (subhanahu wata’ala: Far is He removed from every imperfection, the Most High) has prescribed for them. And it is the detailed knowledge of the path that leads to Allah; knowledge of the purpose of our creation, and the final outcome, in the Hereafter, which the ‘ibad [7] will ultimately wind up in…It is of the duty of talib al-’ilm (the student seeking knowledge) to understand and study the din, to learn and reflect upon what Allah has prescribed, to know the authentic salafi ‘aqeedah which the Prophet was upon, his companions, and their follower in righteousness…” [8]
The greatest, most excellent “and most honorable knowledge is that of Allah, Most High, His Names, Attributes, and Actions, the knowledge of His din and of His Messenger with love and magnification, being pleased with it all.” [9]
The ranks of people with respect to this knowledge varies to a great extent. “Some people know of Allah by virtue of His Generosity, Bounties, and Favors, others know of Him through His Forgiveness, Clemency, and Pardoning, others through His Knowledge and Wisdom, others recognize Him by His Might and Majesty, others by His Mercy, Goodness, Kindness, and Courtesy, others by His Subduing and Sovereignty, and others by the fact that He answers their supplications, and fulfills their needs, and relieves their grief.
The one who is most comprehensive in his knowledge of Allah, knows of Him by means of His own Words. He knows a Rabb to whom belongs the Most Majestic and Perfect Attributes. Far is He removed from having anything comparable to Him or any equal; free from all kinds of defects and imperfections; qualified with every beautiful Name and every perfect Attribute; Doer of what He intends (wills); Above everything [istawa (ascended) upon the ‘arsh above the seven heavens] and with everything [He encompasses everything with His Knowledge, Ability, Authority, and so forth from the meanings of His rububiyyah, while He is the Most High, above everything]; the One who is Able to do everything; the One Who manages the affairs of everything. He commands and forbids. He speaks the legislative (diniyyah) [10]and universal (kawniyyah) [11]words. He is Greater than everything, and He is the Most Beautiful. the Most Merciful, the All-Able, the All-Wise.
Allah, Most High, sent down the Qur’an in order to inform His ‘ibad about Himself, so that they know of Him, of the way that leads to Him, and of the status of travellers to Him after their arrival.” [12]
One of the great suwar [plural of surah (chapter)] of the Qur’an that was revealed to Prophet Muhammad is Surah al-baqarah (The second surah of the Qur’an). In it is an ayah (verse) in which Allah, the Exalted, Speaks about Himself and His Attributes. This ayah is ayatul-kursi, which is highly distinguished because:
The Prophet described as the greatest ayah in the Qur’an.
In it the Most Great Name of Allah (ismullahi al-’atham) is mentioned.
It protects from the shayatin (sing. shaytan).[13]
The believer who recites it following an obligatory salah is under the Care and Protection of Allah until the commencement of the next prayer. [14]
“The one who recites it after each of the obligatory prayers, then death will be the only thing [i.e. barrier] preventing him from entering al-Jannah.” [15]
Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah said: “There is no single ayah in the Qur’an which includes that which is comprised in ayatul-kursi.” [16]
Because of the great importance of this ayah, I have decided, after making istikharah [17] to introduce the english-speaking Muslim communities to the salaf’s tasfir of the Words of Allah in this noble ayah. In this regard, I found that an excellent summarized explanation of its meaning by Shaykh Muhammad ibn ‘Uthaymin (may Allah protect Him) was published by Dar ibnul-Jawzi in Dammam, KSA. I chose it because of the many major points of benefit it contains. Many other related beneficial points from the Shaykh’s discussions in other books or treatises [18] and from other discussions by the great salafi scholars are introduced.
I ask Allah, Most High, to make this effort sincerely for His Majestic Face, and that He grant the best reward to its author and the salafi scholars, and that He grants us a share of the reward for it, and that He makes it a benefit for all Muslims.
The slave of Allah

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Saleh As-Saleh
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KSA

Footnotes
[1] (SallAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam): The salah and salaam of Allah be upon His Prophet Muhammad. The salah of Allah upon Prophet Muhammad is His Praise of the Prophet before the angels who are close to (but below) Allah, the Most High, who istawa (ascended) upon His ‘arsh (Throne), which is above the seven heavens, in a manner that suits His Majesty. The angels also praise the Prophet (r). The salaam is Allah’s safeguarding of the Prophet (r) from deficiencies and any kind of evil, and the protection of the Message with which he was etrusted. When the Muslim says r (sallAllahu ‘alayhi wasallam), he invokes Allah to grant His Praise and Security to Prophet Muhammad and the protection of the Message of Islam which was revealed to him (r). [See Ibnul Qayyim’s Jala’ul Afham fee Fadlis-Salati-wa-Salam ‘ala Muhammadin Khairil Anam, [Damascus, Syria: Dar ibn Kathir, and Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia: Dar at-Turath, 1408/1988], p. 128.

[4]Reported by Al-Bukhari, Sahih Al-Bukhari (Arabic/English), vol. 2, p. 59, and by Muslim in his Sahih (English Translation), vol. 2, no. 2258.

[5]See Sahih Al-Bukhari (Arabic/English), vol. 2, chapter 11, p. 59.

[6]Imam Ibnul Qayyim in his book Muftah Darus Sa’adah [al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia: Dar Ibn ‘Affan (1st.ed; checked by Shaykh ‘Ali Hasan ‘Abdul Hamid al-Halabi al-Athari), 1416/1966], vol. 1, pp. 301-303.

[7]’Ibad (sing.‘abd, lit. “slave”). When generalized, ‘ibad includes the believers and none-believers, the righteous and the wicked. This is the universal kind of ‘ubudiyyah (slavery) pertaining to the rububiyyah of Allah (He is the Rabb of all that exists). Accordingly, it is the submission to the what Allah has commanded and decreed in the creation, and this kind of submission is common to all creation, none is able to escape it. Allah تعالى (the Most High) said:
{إن كل من في السماوات والأرض إلا آتي الرحمن عبدا } [Maryam:93]
There is none in the heavens and the earth will come to ar-Rahman [The One Whose Mercy encompasses everything (Allah)] on the Day of Resurrection as submissive slaves. [Qur’an, Surah Maryam (19:93)].p> The second kind of ‘ubudiyyah comprises the general obedience to Allah. It is specific to those who comply to the shari’ah of Allah. He I says:
{وعباد الرحمن الذين يمشون على الأرض هونا}
And the believing slaves of ar-Rahman are those who walk on the earth in humility and sedateness. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Furqan (25:63)].
The ‘ubudiyyah of the Messengers (‘alayhimu as-salam: May Allah protect them from all kinds of evil) is the very special slavery to Allah, Most High. None can compete with the Messengers’ degree of ‘ubudiyyah to Allah.

[8]Bin Baaz, Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Aziz Al-’ilm Wa Akhlaqu Ahlihi [Riyaadh, Saudi Arabia: a special print compiled by Dr. Muhammad S. ash-Way’ir, 2d, ed. 1409/1988], pp. 302, 315. This important treatise was rendered into English by Br. ‘Ahmar ibn Muhammad Iqbal and entitled Knowledge [Birmingham, U.K.: Al-Hidayah Publishing & Distribution 1995].

[9]Ibnul Qayyim. See Ftn.6, vol. 1, pp. 291-292.

[10]Diniyyah: Pertrains to Allah’s shari’ah (Commands and Prohibitions of the Islamic Code). It is also known as al-iraadah as-shar’iyyah (Allah’s legislative Will).
[11]Kawniyyah: Relates to Allah’s Will in His creation. Everything He Wills is certain to pass, and everything He Wills not to pass, will never occur. None is able to escape Allah’s universal decree.

[12]Imam ibnul Qayyim in his book Al-Fawaa’id [Dammam, Saudi Arabia: Dar ibnul Jawzi (checked and reformatted by Shaykh ‘Ali Hasan ‘Abdul Hamid), 1417/1996], p. 396.

[13]As in the authentic and famous hadeeth reporting the encounter of Abu Hurayrah t with the one of the shayatin. See page 16.

[14]It is reported by at-Tabarani that the Prophet (r) said: “The one who recites ayatul kursi after the conclusion of an obligatory prayer, he is under the Care of Allah تعالى until the next prayer commences.” See at-Tabarani ’s At-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (2:435). Al-Hafith Al-Munthiri said, “At-Tabarani reported it with a good chain of narration.” Al-Haythami stated the same conclusion (Majma’ Az-Zawa’id, 10:109).

[15]This hadeeth is reported by At-Tabarani , ibn as-Sunni, ibn Hibban, and others. Ibn Hibban graded it as sahih in his book As-Salat. Al-Haythami said: “At-Tabarani reported it in Al-KabIr and Al-Awsat with different narrations, one of them is good.” Al-Hafith ibn Hajar said,“Its isnad is sahih …and ibnul Jawzi was inattentive when he reported it in his Mawdu’at (fabricated collection of ahadith).” Shaykh al-Albani authenticated it in As-Silsilah As-Sahihah (vol.2, no.972) and said: “Ibn Khathir declared it as sahih in his tafsir (exegesis).” He noted that Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah ’s classification of this hadeeth as weak, as in his Fatawa (22:508), “Appears to be made at the stage when he was beginning to seek knowledge. In fact, his student Imam ibnul Qayyim related that he (ibn Taymiyah ) was reported to have said, “I never relinquished [to recite] it after each [obligatory] salat.” After detailing the various reports regarding this hadeeth, ibnul Qayyim commented, “It has its basis and it is not mawdu’ (fabricated).” [See ibnul Qayyim’s Zadul Ma’ad (Beirut, Lebanon: Mu’assasatur-Risalah (Checked by Shu’ayeb and ‘Abdul Qadir al-Arna’ut), 2d, ed. 1418/1997)], pp. 293-294.

[16]Majmui’ Al-Fatawa, vol. 17, p. 130.

[17]Istikharah : The special prayer composed of two rak’ahs followed by a specific du’a (supplication) seeking Allah’s Guidance. The English meaning of this Prophetic du’a is: “O my ilah (Allah)! I ask your Guidance due to Your Knowledge, and appeal to You to help me [give me power] due to Your Ability, and ask You from Your Great Favor, for You are Able and I am not. You know and I do not know, and You know all hidden matters. O Allah! If You know that this matter [and you name it] is good for me in my din [Islam], my livelihood, the aftermath of my matter [also said: for my life in the Hereafter], its short term, or its long term, then decree it for me, make it easy for me, and bestow blessing for me in it; and if You know that this matter [and you name it] is bad for me in my din, my livelihood, the aftermath of my matter, its short term, and its long term, then keep it away for me, and turn me away from it, and decree for me the good where ever it is, and then content me with it.” A detailed reference on this great act of worship is found in The Three Abandoned Prayers by ‘Adnan Aal ‘Ar’ur: It may me obtained from The Call to Islam Da’wah Center at 318 Hoe Street, Walthamstow, London, E17 9PX, UK.

[18]It is of paramount importance that the seekers of knowledge should try their best to review the scholarly works of the trusted salafi ‘ulma’. This helps to clarify what is generalized or not entirely clear in some of their statements. In addition it brings out points of benefit which otherwise may be missed. Unlike many so-called “scholars” whose books are filled with mystic terminology whose explanation, in the best cases, may contain truth and falsehood, the ‘ulama’ who follow the path of as-salaf as-salih do not intend confusion for the ummah. However, they are human and may say and (or) write certain things which may need clarification or some detail. Often such clarifications and (or) details are present in other parts of their works and therefore should not be overlooked. It is also relevant that those working on translating the works of the salafi scholars give this issue the consideration it deserves. And Allah Knows best.

Allah! [none has the right to be worshipped but He], the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. Neither slumber, nor sleep overtake Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission? He knows what happens to them [His creatures] in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter. And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills. His kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, above everything, the Most Great.
All Praise is due to Allah, the Rabb of al-’aalameen (creation). I supplicate Allah to have His salah and salaam upon our Prophet Muhammad, his household, and all of his companions.
It Proceeds that this [treatise] is the tafsir of ayatul kursi [Qur’an, Surah Al-Baqarah (2:255)] presented together with points of benefit deduced from it in the course of establishing its explanation.
We ask Allah to make us benefit from the knowledge which He bestowed upon us, certainly He is Al-Jawaad (the One Who grants generously and loves generosity), Al-Kareem (the One Who is Bountiful and Gracious, and loves graciousness), Al-Barr, [19 ]Ar-Rahim (the One Who is Most Merciful).
Muhammad ibn Salih Al-’Uthaymin. [In the Name of Allah,[20] ar-Rahman [21 ]ar-Rahim [22 ]I begin to write:] [23]
Footnotes
[19]البَّر al-Barr: The One Who is Most Subtle, Kind, Courteous, and Generous; the One Who is ample in goodness and beneficence; Who gives manifold increase of reward to the righteous, and Who overlooks many of the faults of the wrong-doers with gracious forgiveness; whoever brings a good deed, Allah, al-Barr, rewards him ten times the like thereof to his credit, and whoever brings an evil deed He U decrees for him only the recompense of the like thereof, and they will not be wronged. If somebody intends to do a good deed and he does not do it, then Allah, al-Barr, will write for him a full good deed in his account with Him; and if he intends to do a bad deed and he does not do it, then Allah will write a full good deed in his account with Him. He loves piety towards Him, goodness, justice, righteousness, honesty, truthfulness, benevolent regard or conduct to parents and others, as well as every incumbent duty.

[20]Allah is the ‘alam (identifying name or title) of the majestic, sole, and true God. This noun which is the name of Allah applies to none other than Him. He, Most Majestic and High, has other names all of which follow on from His name Allah. The meaning of the name “Allah” is the ma’looh (that which is worshipped out of love, magnification, deification, and longing). [See Shaykh ibn ‘Uthaymin’s Sharhul ‘Aqidah Al-Wasityyah (Dammam, Saudi Arabia: Dar ibnul Jawzi, 2d ed. 1415/1994)], p. 38, and Sharh Lum’at Al-’itiqad (Isma’iliyyah, Egypt: Maktabat al-Imam al-Bukhari (checked by Ashraf Maqsud), 1412/1992)], p. 29.

[21]ar-Rahman (The One Who is Most Merciful): This is one of Allah’s particular names and which denotes the attribute of very great and extensive mercy which exists with Him. [See Imam ibnul Qayyim’s Badai’ Al-Fawa’id (Beirut, Lebanone: Darul Khayr, 1st ed. 1414/1994)], vol.1, pp.23-24, and Shaykh ibn ‘Uthaymin’s Sharhul ‘Aqidah Al-Wasityyah, ibid.

[22]ar-Rahim (The One Who Bestows Mercy): This name denotes that the attribute is related to the marhoom (i.e. the one whom Allah chooses to receive His Rahmah (Mercy). So, the difference between ar-Rahman and ar-Rahim is that in the case of the former, ar-Rahmah is His attribute, and in the latter, ar-Rahmah is His act, meaning that He is the One Who bestows ar-Rahmah upon others. So, when both names come together [i.e. ar-Rahman, ar-Rahim ], then the meaning in this context is that Allah’s Mercy is very great and extensive, and that His Mercy reaches His creation. This is what is meant by those who say that ar-Rahman is the One Whose Mercy encompasses everything (general Mercy), and ar-Rahim is the One who has Mercy upon the believers (special Mercy). Since Allah’s Mercy upon the kaafir is a special one in this life only, then it is as if they have no mercy upon them, because in the Hereafter when they will ask Allah to save them from Hell and admit being wrong, Allah will deal with them with His Justice, not His Mercy, Saying:
{ اخسئُوا فيِهَا ولا تُكَلِّمُونِ} [Mu’minun:108]
“Remain you in it [Hell] with ignominy! And speak not to Me!” [Qur’an, Surah Al-Mu’minun (23:108)].
The name ar-Rahim is applied to Allah and may be applied to others. Allah I has described His Messenger Muhammad (r) as Rahim (Surah At-Tawbah, 9:128). Ibn Kathir ( رحمه الله ) said: “Some of the names of Allah تعالى are restricted to Him only like the names: Allah, ar-Rahman, al-Khaliq, ar-Raziq and so forth. Some other names, however, may be applied to other than Him.” [See Badai’ Al-Fawa’id, p.24, Sharhul ‘Aqidah Al-Wasityyah, pp.38-39, Lum’atul I’tiqad, p.29, Tafsir ibn Kathir (1:21), Sharh Thalathat Al-Usul within Shaykh ibn ‘Uthaymin’s Majmu Fatawa (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Dar Ath-Thuraya, 1st ed. 1414/1993)], vol. 6, p. 11.

[23]The author begins his treatise with the basmalah ( بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ) in adherence with the way of Allah تعالى in His Book and following the example of the Prophet (r) who used to begin his letters with it. Given the aforementioned discussion of the meanings of the Names: Allah, ar-Rahman, and ar-Rahim , the meaning of the basmalah is: “I begin [in this case “I begin to write”] seeking the help and the blessings of each and every name of the names of Allah تعالى whose very great and extensive mercy is His Attribute.” [See Lam’atul I’tiqad, p. 29.]

[FIRST]: Allah’s Saying:
Allah, none has the right to be worshipped but He, The Ever-living, the One Who is established on His Own, Self-subsisting, by Whom all things subsist.
This ayah is the greatest ayah (verse) in the Book of Allah just as was ascertained in the response of Ubayy bin Ka’b (Abul-Munthir) to the Prophet’s question when he asked him: “Which ayah in the Book of Allah is the greatest? He (Ubayy) replied: “Ayatul-kursi.” Thereupon he struck him on his breast and said: “May knowledge give you joy, O Abal-Munthir!” [24]
That is why whoever recites it at night [before going to bed], Allah will appoint a guard for him and stay with him to protect him all night long, and no shaytan will come near him till morning. [25] This ayah comprises ten sentences, each of which has a very great meaning. [In the beginning] Allah says:
“Allah”
The word Allah is the title particular to the Most High dhaat (Essence), meaning the name particular to Allah, the Mighty and Magnificent, Himself. [26]This title applies to none other than Allah, whether in times of jaahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era) or times of Islam. For Allah is Rabbul-alamin (The Rabb of all creation), [27]the Mighty and Majestic. In the construct of the sentence, the term Allah is mahatul-khabar (the subject) of the rest of the sentence that follows or mahatul-isnad (the term upon which the rest of the sentence is based). This word, the Majestic term ( الله ), is the subject (gram.) and what comes after [from the attributes to the subject] is either the predicate (gram.) or its explicative apposition.
The First Hukm (judjment regarding a thing in relation to an attribute to its subject) in: Allah, laa ilaaha illaa huwa, is la ilaha illa huwa. Ilah means ma’luh, one who is worshipped out of love and magnification. None deserves this attribute except Allah, the One free of all imperfections and the Most High. All of the aaliha [28](gods) besides Allah which are worshipped on earth or in the heavens, like the angels, do not deserve to be worshipped. They are called aliha but they do not deserve the right which Allah, Rabbul-‘alamin, deserves. [29][He said]:
O Mankind! Single out your Rabb [Allah] with all worship; He Who created you and all those before you so that you may be of those attain Taqwaa; [30]He Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water [rain] from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah [in worship] while you know [that He has no rival, and that He alone has the right to be worshipped]. [31][Qur’an, Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:21-22].
The Word ilah “that which is worshipped (ma’bud),” is a noun of [laa]. In this construct, laa is the negative which negates jins.[32] Here, it denotes the general and absolute negation of all sorts that fall under one kind. Itself being a text of generalization, then laa ilaha is a pure, clear, and comprehensive negation of all sorts [of false gods].
And His saying: which means “Except Him,” [grammatically] is a badal (substitute) for the omitted predict of which is a word understood in meaning but not stated in words, and which is necessary to complete the meaning; this word is haqq (truly and rightfully). Accordingly, the meaning by implication is:
[laa ilaah illaa huwa: None has the right to be worshipped (laa ilaha haqq) except Allah (illAllah)]. [33] This great sentence: Allahu laa ilaha illa huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah), signifies the emphatic and absolute negation of true divinity except to Allah alone.
Regarding Allah’s Saying: The Ever living, al-Qayyum
These are two of Allah’s names which comprise the perfection of Attributes and Actions. The name: comprises the perfection of Attributes, and the perfection of Actions. The meaning of is the one who possesses the perfect living. This is inferred from the [34 ]in which is grammatically used to denote [amongst other things][35] the combination of all perfection [in properties and (or) applications in the term that it accompanies (al-istighraq)].
This is also indicated in as far as existence and none-existence, and perfection and imperfection are concerned. In fact, if we consider man’s life, we find it imperfect because it originates in ‘adam (none-existence) and ends in ‘adam. [36]
It is also imperfect as far as his attributes and actions are concerned. For his hearing, sight, sayings, and actions are all imperfect. As such, man’s life is imperfect from all angles: in existence and ‘adam, and with regard to the inseparable attributes of life itself. However, with respect to Allah, Most Mighty and Majestic, His life is perfect, neither preceded by ‘adam nor coming to naught. Allah, Most High, says:
And put your trust and reliance upon the One who is Ever Living, who does not die. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Furqan (25:58)].
He also said:
Whatsoever is on it (the earth) will perish, and the Face of Your Rabb, full of Majesty and Honour, will abide forever. [Qur’an, Surah Ar-Rahman (55:26-27)].
That is why some of the salaf said: “The person should make a connection and not pause [when he recites the word perish in the above verse] because this signifies the right manner of perfection. The true aspect of Allah’s perfection lies not only in the fact that creation will perish but also in the baqa’ (endless existence) of Allah, the Most Mighty and Most Majestic.
In addition, Allah’s hayat (Life) is one which is neither accompanied by annihilation nor by ‘adam:
Everything will perish save His Face. [Qur’an, Surah al-Qasa (28:88)].
Indeed, to Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, belongs the eternally- perfect Life. Furthermore Allah’s hayaat is characterized by the perfection of Attributes: hearing, sight, knowledge, ability, might and all qualities of perfection. That is why the particle which denotes al-istighraq with regard to baqaa’ (endless existence) and al-kamal (perfection) was introduced.
Regarding [Allah’s] Saying: al-Qayyum, its origin is the word al-qiyaam, and the measure of is fayy’ul and it is a form of intensiveness. The name al-Qayyum means the One Who is established on His Own, Self-subsisting, by Whom all things subsist.[37] Allah, the Most High, said:
Is He (Allah) Who takes charge (guards, maintains, provides, etc.) of every person and know all that he has earned (like any other deities who know nothing)? [Qur’an, Surah Ar-Ra’d (13:33)].
Allah is established on His Own (qaa’im bi-nafsihi) as He, the Most High, says:
And Allah is the Rich (Free of all wants), worthy of all praise. [Qur’an, Surah At-Taghabun (64:6)].
So, Allah is absolutely free of any need from all creation. He is Self-subsisting. He needs not food nor drink, for He is the One Who feeds but is not fed. He needs not a supporter, nor a helper, nor a deputy, nor an advisor. He is established in perfection by Himself.
If someone says, “How do we reconcile the above meaning of al-Qayyum with the saying of Allah, the Most High:
O you who believe! If you “help Allah,” He will help you. [Qur’an, Surah Muhammad (47:7)]
and His saying:
Verily Allah will help those who “help Him”? [Qur’an, Surah Al-Hajj (22:40)].
What is meant by His affirmation that He “is being helped”? The answer is that the intended meaning is help in the cause of Allah’s din, for He is the One Who is in full charge of all things. So, everything other than Allah is dependent upon Him in existence, preparation of affairs, and sustenance.
‎[SECOND]: In His Saying: Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him
Allah did not say (what means): “He does not sleep,” instead He said: (which means) “does not overtake Him” in order to comprise the sleep which overcomes and that arising by choice. If you say, “Does not sleep,” it would imply that He does not sleep by choice. However, Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, does not sleep neither by ghalabah (overcoming) nor by choice, because sleep is an imperfect attribute which contradicts both the perfection of the Self and the perfection in relation to others.
The person who is given to sleep misses a lot of his work because of His sleeping. Consider, for example, the case of a person who has many people working for him and he sleeps a lot. He is unable to reckon with nor manage the business or other related matters. This is an imperfection with respect to others.
As regard to self-perfection, sleep is a deficiency because it indicates that the person’s body got tired and thus he needed the sleep as a rest from what has passed, as well as a means to renew his activity to engage in what will come ahead. That is the why the people of al-Jannah do not sleep—because of the perfection of their lives and bodies. No illness or the like touches them.
If someone says, “We know that the person who does not sleep is unable to do so because of some kind of sickness or a defect, while you say that the lack of sleep is a perfection. Explain.”
We say, “This applies to the creature, and in this case perfection is a relative matter [with respect to Allah it is perfection]. There is no doubt that the person who does not sleep because of an illness has a defect, and that is why he stays always in a state of languor and exhaustion. Thus his welfare will not be established. This is evident from the saying of Allah, the Most High:
And have made your sleep as a thing for rest [Qur’an, Surah An-Naba’ (78:9)]
Meaning that sleep is something that will discontinue the hardship and tiredness. If Allah would sleep, and far is He above such imperfection, then this would necessitate that He needs to rest. In addition, the creation will be ruined because they are in need of Him; even the sleeping person is in need of Allah. In fact, the Prophet used to invoke Allah at night when he was about to sleep:
“If You take my soul, bestow mercy on it [and forgive it, as in another narration], and if You release it then protect it as You protect your righteous slaves.” [38]
In short, it is impossible that Allah, the One free of all imperfections and the Most High, sleeps. The Prophet said: “Verily Allah does not sleep and it does not befit Him to sleep.” [39] The word [does not befit] when used in the Qur’an and sunnah means “the thing which is absolutely impossible to be,” as Allah said:
But it is not befitting for (the Majesty of) ar-Rahman (Allah) that He should beget a son (or offspring or children). [Qur’an, Surah Maryam (19:92)].
[It should be noted] that Allah’s saying: Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him signifies as-sifat as-salbiyyah (attributes of negation: negating any imperfection and implying perfection). The rule with respect to the Names and Attributes of Allah, the Most High, is that there is no such thing as a pure attribute of negation.[40 ] Indeed, when as-sifat as-salbiyyah are mentioned, it is because they imply the perfection of the attributes which are in contradiction to those of negation [41 ]So, because of the Perfection of Allah’s Life and qayyoumiyyah,[42] then neither slumber nor sleep overtake Him.[43]
[THIRD]: In the Third statement, Allah تعالى said:
To Him belongs whatever (maa) is in the heavens [44 ]and whatever is on the earth.
The name “ maa” here is a conjunctive noun (gram. ism mawsool) taking a form of generalization. The term is used in this form in order to indicate that it comprises both the beings and their states. The meaning, therefore, is that Allah is the One Who masters the affairs of everything in existence in the heavens and the earth: creating, sovereignty-kingship, and management;
The sentence, “ To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth,” is a declarative clause in which the predicate (gram. khabar) “To Him” has preceded the subject (gram. mubtada’) which is the conjunctive noun: “Whatever”. In this way, there is a grammatical state of hasr (exclusivity, restriction) which signifies that to Him (Allah) alone belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth. Accordingly, since creating, sovereignty-kingship, and management of affairs belong to Allah alone, it is incumbent that we should surrender to Him alone because we are His slaves, and a slave must surrender to the One Who Owns and Masters him, Allah, the One free of all imperfection, the Most High.
In addition, we must stand to persevere Allah’s pre-decree because we are His possession. and anything which is owned by Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, then it follows that is His right to administer its affairs as He Wills. This right is the same whether His pre-decree applies to the person himself, his family, wealth, friends, country, or the rest of mankind. The important thing is that since the dominion belongs to Allah, then it is His exclusive right to do whatever He Wills.
In the saying of Allah (which means), “ To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth,” the term “heavens” came in the plural form [45]while the word “earth” was stated in the singular though what is meant is the plural. In this regard, the intended usage of the term “earth” refers to the jins (kind).
[FOURTH]: In the fourth statement, Allah, the Most High, said:
Who is it that can interceded with Him except with His Permission?
The word “Who” is an interrogative noun [46 ]and the intended use of the interrogation in the sentence is to assert the negation [that there is none who can intercede] as evident in the affirmation phrase which followed it: “ Except with His Permission.” Whenever a negation takes the form of an interrogative construct, then the statement is infused with the meaning of challenge.
The Intercession ( Ash-Shafa’ah): Regarding the saying of Allah, the Most High: “ Intercedes,” know that:
Linguistically, the term “shafa’ah” means to make an odd number an even one. [47 ]
Traditionally, it refers to the laying of a petition (interceding, mediating) with someone in favor of another, in procuring a benefit or warding off a harm. Thus the shafaa’ah of the Prophet for ahlul-mawqif [48]after the worry and distress which befalls them and which they are unable to bear is an intercession to ward off a harm. On the other hand, the Prophet’s shafa’ah for ahlul-Jannah [49 ]to enter al-Jannah is aimed at procuring a benefit.
None can intercede except by Allah’s Permission:
His Leave is kawni. [50 ]Even Muhammad who has the greatest rank with Allah cannot intercede except with the prior leave from Allah. He will be granted this permission after he prostrates before Allah and praises Him with the great praises and glorifications which Allah guides him to it on that day. Then it will be said:
“Raise your head and speak; you will be listened to, intercede and your intercession will be accepted.”[51]
[It is known] that no one have a rank with Allah greater than that of the Messenger [Muhammad], nevertheless, he cannot intercede except with the prior leave of Allah. It is so because of Allah, Most Majestic and Most High’s, perfection of Authority and hayybah. [52 ]The more a king’s authority becomes fully established, the more reverent and respected he becomes. People would not even speak in his court unless he speaks. Consider the Prophet’s relation with his companions and which Quraysh’s [53]emissary [‘Urwah bin Mas’ud] described [after finalizing the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah]:
“And when they spoke to him they would lower their voices.” [54]
All of this is out of respect. You find that if a king is revered by his flock then no one can speak in his court and in his presence because of the might of his authority.[55]
[The Conditions of Confirmed Intercession]: [56] Allah, , has made it clear that He does not permit intercession except for the one whom He approves of and whose word is acceptable to Him, and for the one He is pleased with and on whose behalf intercession shall be made. It is inevitable that Allah is pleased with ash-shaafi’, the intercessor, and al-mashfoo’i lahu, the one on whose behalf intercession is sought. [57]Consequently, the idols of the polytheists could not intercede on their behalf with Allah because Allah does not approve of them. The Prophets and the righteous do not intercede on behalf of the polytheists because the latter are not approved with Allah.
Accordingly, the conditions for the confirmed shafa’ah are three:
Allah’s permission of it.
Allah being pleased with the shaafi’.
His approval of the one on whose behalf intercession is sought ( al-mashfoo’i lahu). [58]
[Five]: Then Allah Said in the Fifth Statement:
And Allah Knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter.
Knowledge, according to the scholars of usool (the fundamental principles of din), is the definitive comprehension of a thing in conformity with its true nature. Thus, the lack of comprehension is ignorance, the indecisive comprehension is doubt, and the assertive comprehension which does not concur with reality is compounded ignorance.
For example, if you were asked, “When did the expedition of Badr [59]take place?” And you say, “I do not know,” then this is ignorance. If you were asked the same question and you said, “It happened in the second or the third year of hijrah,” then this is doubt. [60]And if your answer to the same question was, “The fifth year,” then this is compounded ignorance. [61]Allah, the Most Mighty and Most Majestic, knows things comprehensively and with perfection, on the whole and in detail. His knowledge is unlike the knowledge of ‘ ibad. That is why He said:
And Allah knows what happens to them [the creatures] in the future and what happened to them in the past. [62]The conjunctive noun < dir=RTL style='text-align:right;direction:rtl;unicode-bidi:embed'> { ما }is a form of generalization (gram.) which comprises everything be it small or great, or whether it is from the actions of Allah or from the creatures’ deeds. Knowing what happens to them in the future implies that Allah is not unaware of the future, and that His knowledge of the past necessitates that He does not forget the past. That is why when Fir’awn said to Mûsa :
“What about the generations of the old?” [Qur’an, Surah Taha (20:51)].
Mûsa replied:
The knowledge thereof is with my Rabb, in a Record. My Rabb is neither unaware nor He forgets. [Qur’an, Surah Taaha (20:52)].
This means that Allah is neither unaware of the future nor does He forget the past.
[Six]: In the sixth statement, Allah تعالى said:
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills.
The pronoun of the verb “compass” refers to either all that is in the heavens and the earth or to the letter haa’ in Allah’s saying: “what happens to them [the creatures] in the future and what happened to them in the past.” In the latter case, the meaning would be “Those who Allah knows what happens to them in the future and what happened to them in the past, will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He Wills.”
In this statement Allah makes clear the perfection of His knowledge and the imperfection of the creature’s knowledge. And thus He compares His Attributes to that of His ‘ ibad in order that His perfection and the imperfection of the creatures become clearly evident. This is also clear in His saying:
Whatsoever on it (the earth) will perish. And the Face of your Rabb, full of Majesty and Honour will abide forever. [Qur’an, Surah Ar-Rahman (55:26-27)].
As far as the word‘ilm (knowledge) in His saying: “ His Knowledge,” it is an infinitive (verbal noun) denoting either (a) the ‘ ilm of His dhaat (Essence) and sifat (Attributes), or (b) His ma’loom (What Allah Knows). Accordingly, the meaning of the ayah: And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills, means either (a) that we do not know anything about Allah, His dhaat , and His sifat except that which He willed for us to know, or (b) that we do not know of what Allah knows except that which He willed to be known. The ayah implies both meanings, and both are correct since we do not know of Allah’s dhaat or sifat except that which He willed for us to know. Indeed, He is the One Who made it known to us that He ascended upon the ‘ arsh (Throne); and He is the One Who taught us on the tongue of His Messenger [Muhammad] that He descends to the lowest heaven [in the last third of the night]; and this is the case with the rest of His sifat: We have no knowledge of them except that He wills. Similarly what Allah knows regarding what is in the heavens and what is on the earth, our knowledge thereof is restricted to that which He willed for us to know. After all, He is the One Who informed us of the existence of the angels in the heavens and that there are seven heavens. So it is with respect to the rest of what Allah knows, we are aware of that which He willed for us to know. Even that which He has made known, many of us are unaware of it; the knowledge thereof are attained only if He wills. In the human being, there are many things which people [i.e. scientists] are not yet fully aware of. They gradually attained the knowledge which they knew not before.
So the ayah comprises both of the meanings discussed above. Thus we do not know anything of what Allah knows even that which concerns ourselves except that which He wills, and that we do not compass anything about Allah’s dhaat and sifat except that which He wills. Therefore, whatever Allah wills for His creatures to know, whether in relation to His dhaat, sifat, asma’ (Names), or Actions; or with respect to His creation or His legal ways which He revealed to His Messengers, then He will make it known for them.
[Seven]: Then Allah, the Most High, said:
His kursi extends over the heavens and the earth encompassing them all, He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the most High, the Most Great.
The kursi [literally: footstool] is mawdi’ul qadamayn (place of the Feet) of Allah, Most Mighty and Most Majestic, and it is before the ‘arsh like a front ‎‎to it. This was authentically related by ibn ‘Abbaas ( رضي الله عنهم) in a mawquf [63]type of narration. This is agreed upon by the majority of ahlus-sunnah wal jamaa’ah. In fact this what is asserted by Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah , [Imam] ibnul Qayyim, and others from the people of knowledge and from the verifying scholars.
Some have said that al-kursi is the ‘ arsh itself. However, this is not true because the‘ arsh is greater, more spacious, and more profound in its extent of encompassing than al-kursi. It has also been narrated on the authority of ibn ‘Abbas that al-kursi represents Allah’s Knowledge. But I do not think that this narration is authentic because this meaning (i.e. knowledge) is not the true meaning for the word al-kursi in the classical Arabic language nor in the common (‘ urfi) language. In fact, it is very unlikely that this transmission from ibn ‘Abbaas is an authentic one. [64]Hence, al-kursi is mawdi’ul qadamayan.
The greatness of al-kursi is clearly stated in the hadith in which the Prophet said:
“The seven heavens and the seven earths by the side of al-kursi are naught but as a ring thrown down in a desert land, and such is al-kursi with respect to al-’arsh (the Throne).” [65]
This hadeeth indicates the vastness of these immense creations and which are, with respect to us, from the world of al-ghayb. That is why Allah says:
Have they not looked at the heavens above them, how We have made it and adorned it, and there are no rifts in it. [Qur’an, Surah Qaaf (50:6)].
He did not say: “Have they not looked at al-kursi (or al-‘arsh)…,” because this is something which is not seen by us. Had it not been that Allah had informed us about it ( al-kursi or al-‘arsh), we would not have known of it. Allah’s saying:
His kursi extends over and encompasses the heavens and the earth, supports the opinion held by Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah and by other verifying scholars that the heavens and the earths all have a spherical shape, because this is a matter acknowledged by sensory perception, and through information, though the latter method may have been hidden from many of the preceding people. The proof for this from the Qur’an is in the saying of Allah, the Most High:
When the heaven is split asunder [on the Day of Resurrection], and listens and obeys its Rabb,—and it must do so; And when the earth is stretched forth…[Qur’an, Surah Al-Inshiqaaq (84:1-3)].
Allah’s saying: And when the earth is stretched forth, necessitates that it is now unstretched. In addition, the Prophet said that on the Day of Resurrection, the earth will be stretched forth like stretched leather, the example of which is drawn for emphasis.[66 ] Another proof is the saying of Allah, the Most High:
Yukawwiru the night around the day [making it to be a covering upon the day] and Yukawwiru the day around the night. [Qur’an, Surah Az-Zumar (39:5)].
Yukawiru means: “to wind round,” [67 ]like in our saying, “the akwaar (singl. kawr) of the turban,” meaning the turns of the turban upon the head.
We know that the day and night succeed each other upon earth and in doing so, this entails that the earth is spherical, because a thing would not be wound around in a round form except upon something ball-shaped. Nowadays, it is witnessed that the earth is spherical in form.
The fact that al-kursi extends over and encompasses the heavens and the earth is evidence that it is wound round in a round form.
Regarding al-‘arsh, it has been reported that the Prophet described it as being like a dome above the heavens.[68 ] The dome-shape being round but neither fully spherical nor flat, and its middle is high like that of a tent. [69] Then Allah, the Most High, said:
And He [Allah] feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them [i.e. the heavens and the earths].
This attribute of Allah [feeling no fatigue] is an Attribute of negation. So, what are the Attributes required for guarding and preserving [the heavens and the earths] such that we know that this negation [of fatigue] is in fact an affirmation of their perfection? It is essential that the guarding and preserving requires Life, Knowledge, Ability, Might, Mercy, and possibly other attributes. What is important is that the negation implies the perfection of Allah’s Knowledge, Ability, Might, and Mercy as well as the other related Attributes which are entailed by His preserving and guarding.
Then Allah said:
And He [Allah] is the Most High, the Most Great.
This sentence, with both of its boundaries defined, denotes exclusivity that He (Allah) alone is the Most High, meaning that He possesses the absolute Transcendence ( al-’uluw al-mutlaq). The restricted or limited ‘uluw (transcendence) is affirmed for the humans. Allah تعالى said:
So do not become weak (O you pious believers), nor be sad, and you will be superior (in victory). [Qur’an, Surah Aal-’Imran (3: 139)]
This superiority is restricted such as being above the kuffar [in victory], not an absolute transcendence. The latter is exclusively restricted to Allah, for He, the One who is most High and free from all imperfection, is above everything.
Then it must be known that the attribute of Transcendence of Allah in the creed of ahlu-sunnah wal jamaa’ah is classified into two types:
The ‘ uluw of the dhaat : The Transcendence of Allah’s Essence.
The ‘ uluw of the sifat : The Transcendence of Allah’s Attributes.
The ‘ uluw of the dhaat means that Allah in His Essence is above everything, and everything is below Him, Most Majestic and Mighty is He. Regarding the ‘ uluw of the sifat, it means that Allah is qualified with the superlative qualities as He, the Most High, said:
And for Allah is the Highest Description [Qur’an, Surah An-Naml (16:60)].
Every Attribute which Allah qualified Himself with is an Attribute of Perfection and in every respect is free from any kind of imperfection.
If you ask: “What is the reason behind this kind of classification? Do you have a proof of it from the Qur’an or the sunnah? Did you find this in the sayings of the sahaabah?
The answer is: “No! But I found it to be necessary when it has been determined that the people of negation ( an-nufat), who themselves are ahlu-ta’teel (those who deny the Attributes), restrict the ‘ uluw to the sifat (qualities) only. They said that Allah’s Transcendence is in His sifat only not in Essence ( dhaat ). The people of ta’til (ahlu-ta’til) themselves became divided regarding the ‘ uluw of the dhaat , as discussed below.
What is important is that the Imams of as-salaf-us-salih and the scholars who came after resorted to this classification out of necessity because they were tested by the people of ta’teel (who denied the ‘ uluw of the dhaat ), and thus they were obligated to affirm the Transcendence in this way. In fact, if we say only that, “Allah is the Most High,” and if someone from the people of ta’teel says that, “the ‘ uluw relates to His Attributes,” then what would the common Muslim understand? The only thing he will understand is that Allah is qualified with the ‘ uluw of the sifat only. But if we say, “Allah is Most High in His sifat as well as in His Essence,” the common Muslims will understand this meaning. In fact, the first thing that is obvious to the common Muslim is that Allah’s ‘ uluw concerns His Essence. Certainly the ‘ uluw of the sifat is part of the meaning of the ‘ uluw but the strange thing is that the people of negation and ta’teel establish it while it is not obvious to many people.
In their denial of the ‘ uluw of Allah’s dhaat (Essence), the people of ta’til ended up being divided into two groups:
The first group: They said that Allah, in His Essence, is everywhere, and if so then He, according to their claim, either occupies a hayyiz [70]or He does not. If He occupies a hayyiz then it is necessary that He would occupy the “places” and there would remain no single “place” present. And if He does not occupy a hayyiz, then He is ma’doom (none-existing).[71] They would not say that what does not occupy a hayyiz is like the “air” or the like thereof, because this would not be harmonious with their position.[72]
The second group: They said, “He is neither in ‘ uluw (loftiness) nor in sufl (opposite ‘ uluw: lowness); He is neither inside the world nor outside it; neither to the right nor to the left; neither joined nor separate.
This position is absolute ta’teel (negation) because it is a description of al-’adam (none-existence). Some scholars said, “If we were asked to describe al-’adam we would not find a more comprehensive definition than this description [above].”
So contemplate as to how their negation of what has been affirmed by the way of naql (texts) and ‘ aql (rational) led them to say what cannot be accepted neither by sensory perception ( hiss), nor by naql or ‘ aql.
We have explained earlier that the ‘ uluw of Allah is proven by the way of the kitaab (the Book, i.e. the Qur’an), the sunnah, ijmaa’ (general consensus of the salaf), ‘ aql, and fitrah. [73]The proofs of the Book and sunnah are diverse:
Some of which mention the ‘uluw like in the saying of Allah:
And He [Allah] is the Most High, the Most Great.
And make tasbeeh [declaring that Allah is far removed above all imperfection] of your Rabb, the Most High, above everything. [Qur’an, Surah Al-A’laa (87:1)].
Others state the fawqiyyah [Allah being above creation], as in Allah’s saying in the Qur’an:
And He [Allah] is al-Qaahir [74 ]above His slaves. [Qur’an, Surah Al-An’aam (6:18)].
Some aayaat (verses) mention the su’ud (ascent) of things up to Him:
To Him ascend [all] the goodly words, and the righteous deeds exalt it [the goodly words, i.e. the goodly words are not accepted by Allah unless and until they are followed by good deeds]. [Qur’an, Surah Fatir (35:10)].
The angels and the rooh [Jibreel ] ascend to Him. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Ma’aarij (70:4].
Sometimes the Qur’an mentions the descent of things from Him:
He [Allah] arranges [every] affair from the heavens to the earth. [Qur’an, Surah As-Sajdah (32:5)].
Verily We: It is We Who have sent down the thikr [the Qur’an]. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Hijr (15:5)].
In the Book there is also the affirmation that Allah is above the heavens:
Do you feel secure that He, who is above the heaven [Allah], will not cause the earth to sink. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Mulk (67:16)].
In addition to the above ayat, there are many other references in the Qur’an which affirm the ‘ uluw of Allah. Similarly the sunnah affirms Allah’s ‘ uluw in His Essence by the way of saying, action, and approval. The affirmation in the saying as in the statement of the Prophet :
“Our Rabb is Allah Who is in the heaven…” [75]
And in his action as when he pointed towards the heavens when he said: “ O! Allah be witness [saying it thrice],” before the greatest assembly of Muslims then. [76]
As to his approval, the Prophet asked a slave girl: ” Where is Allah?” She replied: “Above the heavens.” He then ordered her master, “ Grant her freedom, because she is a believer.” [77]
As for the ijmaa,’ it is acknowledged that the salaf are in agreement that Allah is above His ‘ arsh. No one among them had ever said that He is everywhere or that He is neither above the world nor below it, or that He is neither to the right nor to the left, or that He is neither separated from the world nor associated with it.
On the other hand, the proof of the ‎‘ aql (intellect), has two angles to it:
The ‘ uluw is an attribute of perfection and therefore being as such necessitates that it is an affirmed attribute of Allah because Allah is qualified with the attributes of perfection from every angle.
For the sake of argument, if we say that, “Allah is either above the world or under it or on its right or left,” then which of these descriptions denote perfection? The answer is, “Allah is above the world,” because if he is “under it” then He would be less perfect than the created! And if He is in the same place as the created, then Allah would be equal to him in perfection. Thus it is necessitated that Allah is above everything.
Finally, as far as the fitrah (natural inclination or disposition) is concerned, each person naturally acknowledges the fact that Allah is above the heavens. That is why whenever a person supplicates His Rabb (Allah) he (she) takes refuge towards the direction of the sky (i.e. upward). [78]
[In this regard it is noteworthy to mention] that because Abul Ma’aali al-Juwayyni, [79]may Allah bestow His mercy upon him and may He forgive him, denied the ascending of Allah above the ‘ arsh ( istiwa’ ‘ala al-’arsh) and the ‘ uluw of Allah in His Essence, he had decided that, “Allah was and there was nothing, [80]and He is now as He ever has been,” [81]denying the istiwaa ‘ala al-’arsh. Abul ‘Alaa al-Hamadaani, [82]may Allah bestow His mercy upon him, said, “Teacher! There is no need to mention the ‘arsh. [83].Just tell us about this necessity which we find within ourselves: Whenever an ‘ aarif (one who knows of Allah) says: ‘ O! Allah,’ he finds within his heart a compelling intent aspiring upward? [84]Al-Juwayyni slapped his hands against his head screaming, “Al-Hamadani rendered me perplexed. Al-Hamadaani rendered me perplexed.” He was unable to respond because the matter is natural and cannot be denied.
The strange thing is that those who deny the Transcendence of Allah themselves raise their hands upward in the direction of the heavens when they invoke Allah. I do not know of the situation of the person who believes that Allah is everywhere in His Essence or that He is not inside the world nor outside it or He is neither above nor below, how is he going to face His Rabb on the Day of Resurrection?
Then Allah said: The Most Great, meaning the One Who possesses the absolutely perfect Greatness.
The great of a certain kind of things is the majestic whose qualities attained the utmost degree of perfection, as Allah has said about the throne of the Queen of Sabaa’: And She has a great throne. [Qur’an, Surah An-Naml (27:23)].
In this sense the great of a certain kind of things is that which is characterized by utmost importance and utmost degree of perfection in its qualities.
Footnotes
[24]The complete text in Sahih Muslim is:
عَنْ أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ قَالَ: “قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ يَا أَبَا الْمُنْذِرِ أَتَدْرِي أَيُّ آيَةٍ مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ مَعَكَ أَعْظَمُ قَالَ قُلْتُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ قَالَ يَا أَبَا الْمُنْذِرِ أَتَدْرِي أَيُّ آيَةٍ مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ مَعَكَ أَعْظَمُ قَالَ قُلْتُ: { اللَّهُ لا إِلَهَ إِلاّ هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ } قَالَ فَضَرَبَ فِي صَدْرِي وَقَالَ وَاللَّهِ لِيَهْنِكَ الْعِلْمُ أَبَا الْمُنْذِرِ.”-[صحيح مسلم]
Ubayy bin Ka’b (Abul-Munthir) said: “Allah’s Messenger (r) said: ‘O Abal- Munthir! Do you know the ayah from the Book of Allah which, according to you, is the greatest?’ I said: ‘Allah and His Messenger (r) know best. He again said: Abal Munthir, do you know the verse from the Book of Allah which, according to you, is the greatest?’ I said: { الله لا إله إلاَّ هُوَ الحيُّ القَيُّوم }: Allah, none has the right to be worshipped but He, the Ever-living, the One Who is established on His Own, Self-subsisting, by Whom all things subsist.’ Thereupon he struck me on my breast and said: ‘May knowledge give you joy, O Abal Munthir!’” [See Sahih Muslim bi-Sharh Al-Imam an-Nawawi (Arabic) (Beirut, Lebanone: Dar al-Ma’rifah,1st ed. 1414/1994)], vol. 6, no. 1882, p. 334. This reference contains Sahih Muslim with a commentary by Imam an-Nawawi ( رحمه الله )].

[25]This came in the famous hadeeth reported by al-Bukhari in his Sahih and which the Prophet (r) assigned Abu Hurayrah (t) to be in charge of the Zakaat revenue of the month of Ramadaan. Someone started to steal some of the foodstuff. When Abu Hurayrah (t) took hold of him and threatened to take him to the Prophet (r), he said: “I am needy and have many dependents, and I am in great need.” Abu Hurayrah released him and told the Prophet (r) of what happened. He (r) said, “Indeed, he told you a lie and he will be coming again.” Knowing that the Prophet (r) says nothing but the truth, Abu Hurayrah waited for him watchfully. He caught him trying to steal again. He threatened him to take him to the Prophet (r) but then released him when he complained of his great need and promised not to come again. The Prophet (r) told Abu Hurayrah, “Verily, he told you a lie and he will return.” He returned and was caught stealing for the third time. This time, however, he told Abu Hurayrah (t), “I will teach you some words with which Allah will benefit you.” I asked, “What are they?” He replied: “Whenever you go to bed, recite ayatul-kursi:
الله لا إله إلاَّ هوَ الحيُّ القَيُّوم
till you finish the whole verse. (If you do so), Allah will appoint a guard for you who will stay with you and no shaytan will come near you till morning.” Upon telling the Prophet (r) of this, he said: “He really spoke the truth, although he is [absolutely] a liar. Do you know whom you were talking to, these three nights, O Abu Hurayrah?” Abu Hurayrah said, “No.” He (r) said, “It was a shaytan.” [See Sahih Al-Bukhari (Arabic/English), vol. 3, no. 504].

[26]The dhaat is necessarily qualified with all of the superlative attributes of perfection.

[27]The One Who nurtures and sustains all the creation with His favors and blessings. He is the One Who created them, and He is the One Who possesses full and perfect sovereignty over them, He owns them and controls their affairs as He wishes and in accordance with His Knowledge, Wisdom, and Justice. Being the Rabb of all creation, He deserves, therefore, to be singled out for all worship. After all, He is the one who prepared them for that which they were created: To worship none but Him. He supported them with all of their needs, brought down for them the Revelation, and sent His Messengers to them so that they would be guided to His Path.

[28]Aaliha (sing. ilaah): Gods.

[29]Allah, Most High, said:
{ ولا تدع مع الله إلها آخر لا إله إلا هو كل شيء هالك إلا وجهه له الحكم وإليه ترجعون } [القصص، 88]
And invoke not any other ilaah (god) along with Allah, laa ilaaha illaa huwa [none has the right to be worshipped but He]. Everything will perish save His Face. His is the decision and to Him (all of) you shall be returned. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Qasas (28:88)].
Sahykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah رحمه الله in his Fatawa (1:24) commented: “The one who worships other than Allah even though he loves [his deity] and seems to gain through it some kind of good relations and enjoyment in this life, it is certain that the harm inflicted upon him by this worship is greater than the harm resulting from the enjoyment of eating poisoned food.?”

[30]Taqwa: Seeking to take protection from Allah’s anger and punishment by doing whatever Allah commands and keeping away from whatever He forbids.

[31]Since He is the One Who created you and made available for you all kinds of provisions, then it is a necessary duty upon you that you should single Him out for all worship and set up no partners along with Him in worship.

[32]Jins: Kind, class, comprising under it several sorts.

[33]So, this omitted word haqq (truly and rightfully) makes it clear that, although there are other confirmed deities besides Allah , these aliha [gods] which are worshipped besides Allah are false gods. They posses nothing of divinity, nor do they deserve any worship. [See Shaykh ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Majmoo’ Fataawaa, section on Sharh Thalaathat Al-Usool (Riyaadh, Saudi Arabia: Dar ath-Thurayya 1413)], vol.6, p. 66. This section has been translated into English by Br. Abu Talhah Daawood ibn Ronald Burbank, and was published by Dar Al-Hidayah, Birmingham, U.K.
br> [34]{ ال }, “al”is a particle of determination and specification.

[35]See Lane, E.W., Arabic-English Lexicon (Cambridge, England: Islamic Texts Society, 1984), vol. 1, p. 74.

[36]In the present world, otherwise man will end up in an eternal life in the Hereafter.

[37]He sustains, protects, prepares, and runs the affairs of all things as He wills in accordance with His Knowledge, Wisdom, and Justice.

[38]Reported by Al-Bukhari, Sahih Al-Bukhari (Arabic/English), vol. 8, no. 332.

[39]Sahih Muslim (English Translation), vol. 1, no. 343.
[40]This is because mere negation does not denote any attribute, and therefore it is not considered a praise. In addition, the attributes of negation are of two kinds: 1. General, and
2. Specific.
The meaning of generality in negation is that Allah, Most High, negates all imperfections implicitly denoting that all Perfection is His. For example: Allah, the Exalted, says: { ليس كمثله شيء }, [which means], “There is nothing like unto Him.” So, there is nothing unto Him in His Knowledge, Ability, Hearing, Seeing, Might, Wisdom, Mercy, and so forth. In this general negation, Allah I did not specify the negation. Accordingly all imperfections are denied and all perfections are denoted, and it is stated that there is nothing like unto Him in all of His Perfection.
On the other hand, the specificity in negation is to negate specific allegations of imperfection. For example to deny that defects and drawbacks like forgetfulness, sleep, ignorance, havin son or partner, etc. are associated with Allah, the Exalted. Again, the Perfection is implied as against the negation. [See Shaykh ibn ‘Uthaymin’s Sharhul Wasitiyah], vol. 1, pp. 145-146.

[41]For example, the negation of ignorance stands for the affirmation of Allah’s unlimited knowledge. The negation of death, which is in contradiction of life, implies the perfection of Allah’s attribute of Life.

[42]Qayyumiyyah: The Attribute denoted by Allah’s Name al-Qayyum.

[43]The Perfection of His Life negates that Allah I needs to sleep and the same is also due to the Perfection of His qayyumiyyah, as sleep is needed by the created living creatures due to their imperfection. Although sleeping and eating may be considered as attributes of perfection with respect to man, as a person who does not sleep or eat is considered ill, they are perfection from one angle and defects from another. They are perfection in the sense that they indicate that the body is sound and healthy, and are defects because the body needs them to function. In reality, therefore, they are defects. Accordingly, not every relative perfection in the creature is a perfection for the Creator, and not every Perfection associated with the Creator is a perfection in the created. Eating, drinking and sleeping are relative “perfection” with respect to the creature and negated defects with respect to Allah I. That is why Allah, the Most High, said about Himself:
{ وَهُوَ يُطْعِمُ وَلاَ يُطْعَمُ } [الأنعام، 14]
And it is He (Allah) Who feeds and is not fed. [Qur’an, Surah Al-An’aam (6:14)].

[44]From the angels, jinn, and all that which exists, including which we have no knowledge of.

[45]The Qur’an has stated that there are seven heavens:
{ قُلْ مَنْ رَبُّ السَّماواتِ السَّبعِ وَرَبُّ العَرْشِ العظيم } [المؤمنون،86].
Say: Who is the Rabb of the seven heavens and the Rabb of the great ‘arsh? [Qur’an, Surah Al-Mu’minoon (23:86)].
[46]In the grammatical sense the noun { مَنْ } is the subject, and the term { ذا } is omitted for being redundant. The term { الذي } “he that”is a relative pronoun standing as the predicate of the subject { مَنْ } “Who”. [Author’s note]

[47]Allah said: { والشَّفْعِ والوَتْرِ },[which means], And by the shaf’a (even) and the witr (odd) [of all the creations of Allah]. [Qur’an Surah Al-Fajr (89:3)].

[48]Ahlul-Mawqif: All human beings gathered on one plane on the Day of Resurrection awaiting their accounts to be taken by Allah. The Prophet (r) said, “The sun will come so close to the people that they will suffer such distress and trouble as they will not be able to tolerate it or to bear it.” The Prophet (r) intercedes with Allah to pronounce His Judgment among the people of al-mawqif. They will be relieved from their long standing by virtue of his interceding with Allah on their behalf. [See Sahih Al-Bukhari (Arabic/English)], vol. 6, no. 236.

[49]Ahlul-Jannah: The believers who will be admitted to reside forever in al-Jannah.

[50]Kawni: Pertaining to the Universal Will of Allah, the Most Majestic and Most Magnificent, and which is in accordance with His Foreknowledge and Wisdom. Creation, provisions, life, death, permission to intercede, and so forth exist by the Will of Allah. Everything which Allah Wills is certain to occur. He Willed that Iman (belief in Allah) and kufr (disbelief) occur, although He Loves Iman and Hates kufr. On the other hand, the Legislative Decree (al-hukm ash-shar’i) comprises the Revealed Laws (shari’ah ) which the Messengers came with and what is stated in the Revealed Scriptures. Under this Decree, Allah Loves that mankind believe in Him (Iman) and does not Love for them to commit kufr. Mankind, however, may or may not believe in Allah. In short, under His Universal Will, everything Allah Wills is certain to pass while under the Legislative Will, what is beloved to Allah may or may not take place.

[51]Part of a long and agreed upon hadeeth. [See Sahih Al-Bukhari (Arabic/ English)], vol. 6, no. 3 and no. 236.

[52]Hayybah: An attribute inspiring reverence, or veneration.

[53]Quraysh is the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad (r).

[54]This is part of a long hadeeth detailing the story of the treaty of Al-Hudaybiyah. [See Sahih Al-Bukhari (Arabic/English)], vol. 3, no. 891.

[55]Kings are in need of intercessors because of the imperfection of their knowledge, might and authority. Allah, Most Perfect in His Might, Knowledge, and Authority, is in no need for intercessors. That is why intercession with Allah takes place only if He permits it. With kings, however, intercession is permitted with or without a king’s permission. Those close to the king, for example, may intercede without permission. [See Shaykh ibn ‘Uthaymin’s Al-Qawlul Mufid ‘AlaaKitabit-Tawhid (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Darul ‘Asimah, 1st ed. 1415/1994)], vol. 1, p. 330, 332.

[56]The intercessions permitted by Allah تعالى are six. The Prophet (r) will have the privilege of making three of these intercessions. They are
1. The Prophet’s intercession for ahlul-mawqif. This is known as the Prophet’s greatest shafa’ah and it is part of the highest station of praise and honour (al-maqam al-mahmud) with which the Prophet (r) is distinguished, and for which he will be praised by all creatures. It is mentioned in the Qur’an [17:78].
2. The Prophet’s intercession for ahlul-Jannah to enter al-Jannah.
3. The Prophet’s (r) intercession with Allah تعالى to reduce the punishment of his uncle, Abu Talib because of his protection and support of the Prophet (r). He will be placed in a shallow part of Hell-Fire.
The other intercessions are not restricted to the Prophet Muhammad (r). They include:
4. The Prophet’s intercession with Allah تعالى that He does not cast into Hell the one who deserves it.
5. His intercession of taking out from Hell those admitted to it as a result of their sins.
6. The intercession to raise the ranks of the believers. This is the du’a of the Prophet (r) to believers and by the believers for each other. [See (1) Shaykh ‘Abdul ‘Aziz bin Baaz’s commentary on Shaykh-ul Islam ibn Taymiyah ’s Al-’Aqidah Al-Wasitiyyah which Shaykh ‘Ali Hasan ‘Abdul Hamid compiled in his verification of Shaykh ‘Abdur-Rahman As-Sa’di’s book At-Tanbeehaat Al-lateefah ‘Ala Al-Wasitiyyah (Dammam, Saudi Arabia: Dar ibnul Qayyim, 1409/1989), p. 73, and (2) Shaykh ibn ‘Uthaymin’s Al-Qawlul-Mufid, pp. 332-335].
The intercessions mentioned above are the ones which are approved by Allah. The annulled intercession is any intercession which is not approved by Allah.
The intercessions mentioned above are the ones which are approved by Allah. The annulled intercession is any intercession which is not approved by Allah:

[57]The conditions are stated in the following ayat
1. Allah says:
{ مَنْ ذا الَّذي يَشْفَعُ عِنْدَهُ إلاَّ بإذُنِهِ } [البقرة، 255]
Who is he that will intercede with Him except by His permission. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Baqarah (2:255)].
2. Allah says:
{ يَومَئِذٍ لا تَنْفَعُ الشَّفاعَةُ إلاَّ مَنْ أَذِنَ لَهُ الرَّحمن وَرَضِيَ لَهُ قَولا } [طه، 109]
On that day no intercession shall avail, except the one for whom ar-Rahman has given permission and whose word is acceptable to Him. [Qur’an, Surah Taha (20:109)].
3. Allah I says:
{ وَلاَ يَشْفَعُونَ إلاَّ لِمَنِ ارتَضَى } [الأنبياء، 28]
And they cannot intercede except for him with whom He is pleased. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Anbiya’ (21:28)].

[58]The case of intercession on behalf of the Prophet’s uncle, Abu Talib, is excluded and in a very limited sense from the ruling stated in Allah’s saying
{ فمَا تنْفَعُهُم شَفَاعَةُ الشَافِعِين } [المدَّثر،48]
No intercession of intercessors will be of any use to them [unbelievers, polytheists]. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Muddathir (74:48)].
Abu Talib stood in support of the Prophet (r) and protected him from his enemies of Quraysh. The intercession on behalf of Abu Talib is special for the Prophet (r). Other than this special intercession, none is allowed to intercede for a kaafir. Even Abu Talib is not saved from the Fire of Hell. Had it not been for the intercession of the Prophet (r), Abu Talib “would have been in the bottom of the (Hell) Fire,” as the Prophet (r) said. “Perhaps my intercession will be helpful to him on the Day of Resurrection so that he may be put in a shallow fire reaching only up to his ankles with which his brain will boil,” he (r) added. [See Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 5, no. 222 and no. 224, and Shaykh ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Al-Qawlul Mufeed, vol. 1, p. 334]. :

[59]The Battle of Badr occurred between the army of the believers lead by Prophet Muhammad (r) and the polytheists of Quarysh and it took place on the 17th of Ramadaan of the second year of Hijrah.

[60]Because you give another answer which you think has the same possibility of being the truth.

[61]This is known as al-jahlul-murakkab, which is to comprehend something in a way contrary to its true reality. [See Shaykh ibn ‘Uthaymeen’s Sharh Thalaathat Al-Usool (Burmingham, UK: Al-Hidayah Publication, 1st ed. 1418/1997)], p. 37.

[62]This is one of the meanings of this great ayah. It signifies that Allah’s knowledge encompasses everything in the past, present, and the future; nothing escapes Allah’s knowledge.
Note: One of the Names of Allah is العليم al-‘Aleem: The One Who knows what has been and what will be; Who ever has known, and ever will know, what has been and what will be; His knowledge comprehends all things, the covert and the overt, the small thereof and the great, the possible and the impossible, the lofty and lower spheres, etc. in the most complete manner. Nothing is concealed from Him in the earth or in the heavens. [See Shaykh as-Sa’di’s Taysir Al-Karim Ar-Rahman fi Tafsir i Kalamil-Mannan [‘Unayzah, Saudi Arabia: Salih bin Salih Center Publish. 1412/1992)], vol. 5, p. 299.

[63]Mawquf: lit. “stopped”. It is a narration from a companion only. The hadeeth attributed to the Prophet (r) is called marfoo’. Shaykh ibn ‘Uthaymin (hafithahullah) commented, “Had it not been that ibn ‘Abbas ( رضي الله عنهما ) is one whom it is said that he takes from the Israelite transmissions (isra’iliyyat: narrations from the traditions of the People of the Book), we would have said that this transmission (regarding al-kursi) takes the form of marfoo’ tradition, because it deals with knowledge of al-ghayb (the world of unperceived realities). When it comes to this kind of knowledge, there is no room for ijtihad (scholarly deductions). When a sahabi (companion) says or does something which is not within the scope of ijtihaad, then it takes the marfu’ type of tradition. The exception, however, is that if the narration from the sahabi is of the form of akhbar (news telling, relating information), then, if it is known that a sahabi narrates from Bani Israa’eel, his transmission would not be marfu’ because of the possibility that its source may be from Bani Isra’il (an Israelite transmission). Knowing that the scholars are scrupulous in their inspection of what is attributed to the Prophet (r), they do not rule that a particular transmission is marfoo’ except when all of the possibilities that may hinder this ruling are ruled out.” Tafsir Aayat Al-Kursi, pp. 19-20. Note: This report from ibn ‘Abbas is related by ‘Abdullah ibn al-Imam Ahmad (As-Sunnah:586), ibn Abi Shaybah (Al-’Arsh:61), ibn Khuzaymah (At-Tawhid: 248), and by al-Hakim (Al-Mustadrak: 2:282) who said it is sahih according to the conditions of al-Bukhari and Muslim. Imam ath-Thahabi agreed to the authentication of al-Hakim. Ad-Daraqutni reported it in his book As-Sifat (36) as mawquf from ibn ‘Abbas. Shaykh al-Albani said: “Its isnad is sahih , and its narrators are all reliable.” (Mukhtasar Al-’Uluw: 45).

[64]Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah (Al-Fatawa, 6:584), and Shaykh al-Albani (Silsilat Al-Ahadith As-Sahihah, no. 109), stated the weakness of this narration from ibn ‘Abbaas ( رضي الله عنهما )

[65]Reported by ibn Abi Shaybah (Al-’Arsh, 58), and by al-Bayhaqi (Al-Asma’ Was-Sifat , 862) with both narrations being from the way of Abee Thar t. Shaykh al-Albani (As-Silsilah As-Sahihah, no. 109) stated that there is no single authentic hadeeth attributed to the Prophet (r) regarding al-kursi except this one.

[66]Reported by ibn Jareer at-Tabari (tafsir at-tabari, 30:115-116) on the authority of ‘Ali ibn al-Hussain. The transmission, however, is mursal. Note: A hadeeth is categorized as mursal when the link between the taabi’ee (successor of the sahaabah) and the Prophet (r) is missing.

[67] The infinitive noun is takweer, which means to round a thing in a round form.

[68]This has been reported in Sunan Abi Dawud (English Translation), no. 4708 and in the Sunnah by ibn Abi ‘Aasim, no. 575, and by others. There is disagreement regarding the authenticity of its isnad . Imam ath-Thahabai and other scholars of hadeeth including al-Albani graded its isnad as weak. Imam ibnul Qayyim supported its authenticity. The text describing al-‘arsh as a dome over the heavens is supported by the context of an authentic narration reported by Imam Al-Bukhari in his Sahih (Arabic/English), vol. 9, no. 519 and in which the Prophet (r) said
“إِنَّ فِي الْجَنَّةِ مِائَةَ دَرَجَةٍ أَعَدَّهَا اللَّهُ لِلْمُجَاهِدِينَ فِي سَبِيلِهِ كُلُّ دَرَجَتَيْنِ مَا بَيْنَهُمَا كَمَا بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ فَإِذَا سَأَلْتُمُ اللَّهَ فَسَلُوهُ الْفِرْدَوْسَ فَإِنَّهُ أَوْسَطُ الْجَنَّةِ وَأَعْلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَفَوْقَهُ عَرْشُ الرَّحْمَنِ وَمِنْهُ تَفَجَّرُ أَنْهَارُ الْجَنَّةِ”-البخاري.
“There are one-hundred degrees in al-Jannah which Allah has prepared for those who carry on jihaad in His Cause. The distance between every two degrees is like the distance between the sky and the earth, so if you ask Allah for anything, ask Him for the Firdaws [ فِرْدَوْسْ ] for it is the middle and highest part of al-Jannah and at its top is al-’arsh of ar-Rahman (Allah), and from it gush forth the rivers of al-Jannah.”
The ’arsh being the roof of the Firdaws, which is the middle and highest part of al-Jannah, indicates that it has a dome-shape because a thing cannot be at the middle and at its heighest point (peak) unless it is round. [See Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah ’s Al-Fataawaa, vol. 5, pp. 150-155, and the book of Al-’Arsh by Muhammad ibn ‘Uthman ibn Abi Shaybah (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Maktabat ar-Rushd (checked by Dr. Muhammad ibn Khalifah at-Tamimi), 1418/1998), p. 333]. :

[69]This is based upon additional explanation of the translated text which the author, Shaykh Muhammad ibn Salih al-’Uthaymin, directly related to me on Wednesday the 16th of Safar 1419Hj, corresponding to the 10th of June 1998. He stated that this explanation fits with that of the hadeeth on the Firdaws as mentioned above. And Allah knows best.

[70]Hayyiz: Linguistically the word hayyiz signifies:
Drawing, collecting, or gathering together.
To hold in one’s possession.
To drive the camel gently to water.
To rise, turn away, or turn towards.
Remove, withdraw, or retire to a distance.
Draw back.
Leave a place to another.
Turn aside to a place or to a different company and
What is annexed to the house.
It is noticed that these linguistic meanings entail: change, moving or turning from place to a place or from a direction to another.
In addition, the term hayyiz, refers to an existing external thing which surrounds and contains something. The lateral portions (or outer surfaces) of the contained thing itself form an existing hayyiz. Anything which is surrounded by an existing hayyiz is called mutahayyiz. Accordingly, what is in between the heavens and the earth is mutahayyiz. [Refer to Appendix A for further important information.]

[71]They negate the ‘uluw of Allah above the creation because they consider what is above the world is itself a hayyiz. Saying that Allah is above the world means to them that he is in a hayyiz although they acknowledge that it is ‘adami (none-existing)! It is clear that the way of the scholastic theologians is fallacious argumentation.
The fact is that above the world there is nothing except Allah, so could He be in something “none-existing”? Being “in it” is no more than being alone by Himself and that He is distinct and separate from creation, His dhaat is not commixed with any part of His creation..

[73]The Shaykh refers to his explanation of Al-’Aqidah Al-Wasittiyyah of Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah [Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Dar ibnul Jawzi, 1415/1994], vol. 1, pp. 373-400.

[74]Allah is al-Qahir: The Most Mighty and the Magnificent, is dominant over all his slaves being Himself above creation, the Ever-living, the Mighty, and the All-Powerful. He is the One who subdued all of his creatures; everything in the upper and lower worlds is subservient to His Will, and Authority; whatever He willed to happen will certainly occur and as He wanted it to be, and whatever He willed not to occur will never take place; All creatures are in need of Him, they have no control of good or harm to themselves; nor can they control death nor life nor Resurrection. The most powerful creature is nothing before the domination and power of Allah, the All-Mighty; the creatures which people have taken as “gods” besides Allah, cannot protect themselves let alone to dominate others. Allah, the perfect is His domination deserves to be worshipped alone.

[75]Reported by Abu Daawood, Ahmad, and others. It was declared hasan by ibn ‘Adiyy (Al-Kamil 3:1054) and by al-Bayhaqi (Al-Asma’ Was-Sifat , p. 892), ath-Thahabi (Al-’Uluw, p. 48), and ad-Darimee (Ar-Rad ‘Ala Al-Jahmiyyah, p.70). Other scholars of hadeeth considered it weak because of the weakness of one of its narrators, Ziyadah bin Muhammad al-Ansaari. According to al-Bukhari his hadeeth falls in the category of munkar which, according to him, is a strong state of criticism meaning “denounced”. Other scholars of hadith sometimes consider the munkar to mean the absolutely singular (al-fard al-mutlaq) narration which is not supported by any follow up (mutaba’ah). [See Shifa’ul-‘Alil bi-Alfath wa Qawa’id Al-Jarh Watta’dil (Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: Maktabat al-’Ilm, 1411/1991), pp. 306-311, and Shaykh al-Albani’s Da’if Sunan Abi Daawood, no. 839]. However, another hadeeth by Qataadah in which Bani Israa’eel have said :“O Our Rabb!, You are in the heaven, and we are on the earth…,” is declared hasan by Shaykh al-Albani. [See ath-Thahabi’s Al-’Uluw (Beirut, Lebanon: al-Maktab al-Islami, 1412/1991; checked by Shaykh al-Albaani)], no. 107.

[76]As in the long hadith of Jabir ( رضي الله عنهما ) describing the Farewell Hajj of the Prophet (r) which was reported by Muslim in his Sahih (English Translation), vol. 2. pp. 611-617.

[77]This is a clear response to those who say that “Allah is everywhere.” The Prophet (r) used the term “Where,” and the answer of the girl was “Above.” Those who say that Allah is exalted above any particular direction are to be asked, “What do you mean by ‘direction’?” If they deny that Allah is above the creation because it would mean that He is in a “particular direction,” then they are wrong because there is no one from the creation who exalted Allah more than the Prophet (r), and yet he (r) affirmed that He I is above the heavens and pointed skyward because it is a direction of ‘uluw. This direction of ‘uluw does not limit, contain, or envelop Allah, the Most Great. Nothing is above Him, the Most High. Are they more eloquent in speech than the Prophet (r)? Are they more sincere with respect to the teachings of this din than the Prophet (r)? Certainly they are not. And the Prophet (r) did not intend confusion to his followers. Had there been any false meaning necessitated by affirming the ‘uluw of Allah the way the Prophet (r) affirmed, he would have made it clear. The texts, however, do not necessitate the false conclusions made by those who deny the ‘uluw of Allah in His Essence above the creation. Neither in the Qur’an nor in the authentic sunnah, does the affirmation of the ‘uluw imply hat Allah is contained in a place or that he is a compounded body (jism), or “within limits,” for He is above everything and that there is no creation above the world, there is only Allah above everything.

[78]People naturally raise their hands and seek the direction of ‘uluw (highness) in their hearts when they supplicate Allah, the Most High. This does not mean that they do so because the sky is the qiblah of invocation just as the ka’bah is the qiblah (direction) of the prayer as claimed by those who deny the ‘uluw of Allah is His Essence! There is no legal evidence that the sky is the qiblah of du’a . Had this been one of the proven matters, it would have been known by the salaf. In addition, the qiblah of invocation is the qiblah of the prayer. It is praiseworthy that the Muslim face the qiblah while making du’a . In fact the Prophet (r) faced the qiblah many times and invoked Allah, the Most High. A qiblah is something which a person is face to face with, just like the positions in the prayer, invocation, thikr, sacrifice, etc. Had the sky been the qiblah of du’a then it would have been permissible for the Muslim to invoke Allah turning his face up in its direction, something which is not legally approved. Linguistically, the upward position towards which the hands are raised is not called a qiblah. Directing the heart upward while in a state of du’a is something ingrained in the fitrah and done by the Muslim, the kaafir, the learned and the ignorant, especially in times of distress. The one facing the qiblah knows well that Allah is not there, however, while in a state of du’a the person turns to his Creator who is above the creation. He does not turn towards the sky seeking refuge in something created, but he seeks the Creator of the heavens and the earth who is High above the entire creation. Ask those in times of distress, “Do you turn towards the heavens or to Allah who is above the heavens?” Naturally they turn to Allah.

[79]Al-Juwayyni, ‘Abdul Maalik ibn ‘Abdullah ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad Abul Ma’ali (419/1028-478/1085), nicknamed Imamul haramayyn (the Imam of the Two Sanctuaries i.e. Makkah and Madinah) because he lived in Makkah for four years and then moved to Madinah where he taught. Originally he was from Juwayyn (present-day Afghanistan). He was a Shaafi’ee scholar and an Ash’arite. It is important to remember that he رحمه الله is said to have been the first to resort to the figurative interpretation of the sifat . He, however, retracted from this position, but like many of the late ashaa’irah, he resorted to tafweed: consigning the meaning of the sifat to Allah claiming that the thaahir (obviously-understood meaning), is not the intended meaning, something which they erroneously attributed to the salaf. The truth, however, is that the salaf, affirm the obviously understood meaning of the Attributes of Allah, but they consign the manner (i.e. the “how”) of the sifat to Allah. For example, the obvious meaning of Pleasure is known. We affirm it to Allah as He has affirmed to Himself. The manner of Allah’s Pleasure, however, is consigned to Allah. So the Pleasure of Allah is true and like all of His Attributes, nothing is like unto Him in His Pleasure. The kayyfiyah (specification, i.e. how is His Pleasure) is known only to Allah. Imam ath-Thahabi reported that before his death, al-Juwayyni denounced scholastic theology and fully supported the position of the salaf. (Al-’Uluw, p. 175, checked by Shaykh al-Albani).

[80]Meaning that Allah was and there was no ‘arsh as confirmed by the full report in ath-Thahabi’s Al-’Uluw (p. 276, no. 337; checked by Shaykh al-Albani).

[81]Meaning that He is not ascending above His ‘arsh.

[82]Muhammad ibn ‘Ali al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Hamadaani (d. 531/1137).

[83]Because the proof for the ‘arsh is sam’ee, meaning it is established by evidence from the Qur’an and (or) authentic sunnah. Had it not been established through this means, we would have not known of it.

[84]i.e. because of the Transcendence of Allah. In the detailed report, al-Hamadaani said: “Whenever an ‘aarif says: ‘O! Allah,’ except that before his tongue starts moving, a compelling intention arises in his heart. It neither turns to the left nor to the right but heads for above. Do you have a way to avert this necessitated intention?” His saying “heads for above” affirms that it seeks Allah who is absolutely above the universe, it does not turn to the heavens nor to the ‘arsh because these are created things.

Affirming Five Names of the Names of Allah: Allah, al-Hayy, al-Qayyum, al-’Aliyy, al-’Athim. [85]
Affirming that Allah is singled out with all worship ( al-uluhiyyah): He is the One Who alone has the right to be worshipped, or that He is the One who is worshipped rightfully and deservingly:
None has the right to be worshipped but He [Allah].
Refuting the claim of the polytheists who affirm other gods beside Allah.
Affirming the sifah (attribute) of hayaat (Life) for Allah, and that His life is one of perfection, neither preceded by ‘adam nor coming come to naught nor characterized by imperfection. On the contrary, our life originates in ‘ adam and will come to an end, and it is accompanied by imperfection. If fact, all of our life is imperfect, and that is why Allah described it by ad-dunya. [86 ]The Life of Allah, however, is perfection from all angles because of His saying: The Living, where the particle is for al-istighraq, which comprises all the meanings of the qualities of the perfect life, as if He says, “There is no one who is truly living except He.” In fact, this is the case because there is none qualified with the life of perfection except Allah, the Most Mighty and most Majestic.
Affirming the al-qayyumiyyah [87]for Allah because He said: Such a description does not apply to the human being. There is not any person who is established on his own nor is there anyone who takes full charge of others by whom they subsist, because there is no human being except that he is in need of others. We need workers, and they need us. We need [our] women and they need us. We need our sons and daughters and they need us. There is no one who is absolutely in full charge (giving them care, maintenance, providing for them, etc.) of others. I may be able to take charge of someone else, but in a limited sense. That is why Allah said:
Is He [Allah] Who takes charge (guards, maintains, provides, etc.) of every person and knows all that he has earned (like any other deities who know nothing)? [Qur’an, Surah Ar-Ra’d (13:33)].
The ayah contains ismullaahi al- aa’tham (Allah’s Most Great Name) affirmed in His saying:
Allah, there is no god worthy of worship except He, the one who possesses the perfect living, and Who is established on His Own, Self-subsisting, and by Whom all things subsist. [88]
These two Names were mentioned in three places in the Qur’an, in the two Surahs known as az-zahrawayn [89] (Al-Baqarah and Aal-’Imran), and in Surah Taha. [90]
The people of ‘ilm (ahlul ‘ilm) said: The Most Great Name of Allah is only in these two Names since they comprise the Most Beautiful Names in their entirety, and hence the attribute of Perfection is implied in the Name and the attribute of ihsaan (beauty) is entailed in the Name
The perfection of Allah’s Life and qayyoumiyyah such that they are free from the slightest imperfection. The evidence is in His Saying:
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him.
Perfection may be generalized considering what is predominant or more numerous although it may be deficient in certain aspects. However, negation of imperfection means that the perfection is absolute and in every respect is free from deficiency. In this sense the negation occurred in His Saying:
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him.
Affirming as-sifat as-salbiyyah for Allah because of His saying:
Neither slumber, nor sleep overtakes Him,
and His saying:
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them.
The sifat as-salbiyyah are those attributes which Allah has denied for His Self and which imply affirming the perfection of their opposites.
Affirming that Sovereignty of Allah comprehends everything. The evidence is in His saying:
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.
This Sovereignty is exclusively His. The evidence lies in the same ayah: To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth, in which the predicate (gram. khabar) “To Him” has preceded the subject (gram. mubtada’) which is the conjunctive noun “Whatever”. In this way, there is a grammatical state of hasr (exclusivity, restriction) which signifies that: “ To Him (Allah) alone belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.”
Affirming the heavens and the earth, as in His saying:
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.
The “ heavens” is a number. They are seven in number and similarly is the number of the earths as proven from other texts. [91]
The Perfection of the Kingship of Allah, as evident in His saying:
Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission?
This Kingship is not the same as His all-comprehensive Sovereignty. In fact, the power and perfection of kingship is more perfect than just all-comprehensive sovereignty.
Affirming the intercession which is approved by Allah as evident in His saying: [None can intercede] except by Allah’s Permission, otherwise the exception would not be correct. Hence, had the approved intercession been not affirmed, the exception would not be correct.
Affirming the “Permission” which is His Command: [None can intercede] except by Allah’s Permission,
Affirming the ‘ ilm (Knowledge) for Allah and that His Knowledge comprehends the past, the present, and the future. The evidence is in His saying:
And Allah Knows what happens to them (His creatures) in the future and what happened to them in the past.
Refuting the claims of the extremists from the Qadariyyah [92]by affirming Allah’s all-encompassing Knowledge as in the statement. This constitutes a rebuttal of the extremist from the Qadariyyah who say that Allah knows the actions of His salves only after they are carried out, denying that Allah knowledge comprehends everything.
The rebuttal of the two sects, the Khawarij [93]and the Mu’tazilah [94 ]by affirming the shafaa’ah. Both sects deny the general intercession approved for the Prophet and for others and which applies to the people who committed sin. This negation is based upon their doctrine that the person who commits a major sin and die without repenting from it will be punished in the Fire forever. The two sects differed, however, as to whether such a person is considered a kaafir, or neither a believer nor a kafir.
The Kharijites, courageous against the truth and for it, said, “The one who commits a major sin is kaafir and no longer belongs to the fold of Islam.” The Mu’tazilites were fearful to oppose the people of ahlus-sunnah and the kharijites. They took a cowardly position and said, “We will sit in the middle of the road and say that the one who has committed a grave sin is in a position somewhere between the two; we neither say he is a believer nor a kaafir!” Both sects, however, agreed that in the hereafter he will be in the Fire of Hell forever. That is why they denied the shafaa’ah (intercession). The generality of the ayah refutes the position held by both sects:
Who is he that can interceded with Him except with His Permission?
None will ever encompass anything of Allah’s knowledge nor of His Hearing or His Sight:
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills.
We comprehend no knowledge about Allah nor about His creation except that which He wills for us to know. [95]
Forbidding the takyeef (assigning a mannar or a “how”) to the Attributes of Allah, because He did not inform us of the how they are. So if we claim the knowledge of the kayfiyyah (i.e. the condition or the “how”) of His Attributes, then we are lying.
Rebutting the Mu’attilah, due to His saying:
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge.
This is evidence against the Mu’attilah because they say, for example, that Allah has no real Hand. This necessitates that they encompass the negation of one of His Attributes. In this respect, both sects, the Mu’attilah and the people of takyeef ( Mukayyifah) lied because Allah affirmed this Attribute (i.e. the Hand) to Himself. Accordingly, their claim that the true and real Attributes like the Hand, the Face, the Eyes, and so forth do not befit Allah is false and void. The basis for this fact is that knowledge is of two kinds: (a) Affirmation, and (b) Negation.
Therefore, you cannot negate anything as being a quality of someone (something) except with knowledge, just like you cannot affirm anything for someone (something) except with knowledge. So if those sects would deny the realties of the aforementioned Attributes of Allah then they must bring forth their proofs, if they are truthful. For example, Allah did not negate that the Attribute of the Hand from His Self, not even in one single ayah in the Qur’an, nor did the Prophet negate this Attribute in any hadeeth, nor did the righteous predecessors ( as-salaf-us-salih ). Those sects, however, utter the negation of Allah’s true and real Hand.
Rebutting the position of the Mumathilah (those who liken Allah to His creation). Since the ayah:
And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge.
implies a rebuttal of the Mukayyifah, then by all reason it is a rebuttal of the Mumathilah.
Affirming the mashee’ah (Will) for Allah because of His saying:
Except that which he Wills.
Rebutting the Qadariyyah and the Mu’tazilah who say that Allah, the Most High, does not Will anything as far as man is concerned. [96] This is evident in Allah’s saying:
And they will never compass…
Knowing that man’s compassing of something is from his qualities and his qualities are a creation of Allah, [and hence man’s will is not independent from the Will of Allah].
The greatness of the kursi, for His saying:
His kursi extends over and encompasses the heavens and the earth.
The Greatness of the Creator of the kursi because the greatness of the created implies the Greatness of the Creator.
The kufr of the person who denies the heavens and the earth because this necessitates accusing Allah of lying. As far as the earth is concerned, I believe that no one denies it [its existence]. However, as regard to the heavens, there are those who deny them saying that what is above us is boundless and limitless space, and that there is only stars and diffused dust (sadoom) or the like. There is no doubt that the one who holds to this belief is a kaafir, whether he himself believes in this or he imitates those whom he reveres from the people who hold to this belief—while knowing the truth implied from the proofs of the Qur’an and the sunnah.
Affirming the Strength of Allah, and the proof is His saying:
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them.
Denying the mashaqah (fatigue) from Allah, the Mighty and Majestic, because of His saying:
He feels no fatigue.
This is one of the sifat as-salbiyyah just like saying of Allah:
And indeed We created the heavens and the earth and all between them in six Days and nothing of fatigue touched us. [Qur’an, Surah Qaf (50:38)].
Affirming what is implied by the above statement:
He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them,
from the attributes of Knowledge, Ability, Life, Mercy, Wisdom, and Strength.
Affirming that the heavens and the earth are in need for someone who guards them, as stated in Allah’s saying (which means): He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. Had it not been for the guarding and preserving of Allah, they would have been ruined. Allah says:
Had it not been that Allah checks one set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues, and masaajid (mosques), wherein the Name of Allah is mentioned much would surely have been pulled down. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Hajj (22:40)]. [97]
And His saying:
He withholds the heavens from falling on the earth except by His Leave. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Hajj (22:65)].
Verily! Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they move away from their places, and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that can grasp them after Him. [Qur’an, Surah Fatir (35:41)].
Affirming al-’uluw ath-dhaat i (the Transcendence of Allah in His Essence) and al-’uluw as-sifat i (the Transcendence of Allah’s Attributes) because of His saying:
And He [Allah] is the Most High, above everything.
Rebutting both the Hululiyyah [98 ]and the Mu’atilah who negate this Attribute of Allah. The Hulooliyyah say, “Allah is not above everything but rather He is everywhere.” And the Mu’attilah, the people who deny Allah’s Attributes, say, “He cannot be described as being High or low, to the left or the right, or as being separated from or associated with His creation.”
Warning against transgression upon others because of His saying:
And He is the Most High, above everything, and He is the Most Great.
That is why Allah said in Surah An-Nisa’:
And if they [women] return to obedience [to their husbands], then seek not against them means [of annoyance]. Surely, Allah is ever Most High, above everything, Most Great. [Qur’an, Surah An-Nisaa’ (4:34)].
So if you think proudly of yourself, then remember the Highness of Allah above everything, the Most Mighty and Majestic. And if you think of yourself as being great, then remember the Greatness of Allah.
Affirming the Greatness of Allah because of His saying:
The Most Great.
Affirming the Attribute of Perfection which is implied in the combined Attribute of Transcendence and Greatness.
Knowing that the mulk (Sovereignty) belongs to Allah then: We must not behave or act in His kingdom except in accordance with that which He is pleased, because of His saying:
To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the earth.
The judicial rulings and decreeing amongst the people must be based upon the Judgment of Allah. Indeed the reliance of man upon the judicial decrees laid by the created and the system of laws laid down by man is one kind of setting up rivals with Allah ( shirk billah), [99]the Most Mighty and Most Majestic.
Contentment with the Pre-decree of Allah, the Most Mighty and Most Majestic, because if you know that the Sovereignty exclusively belongs to Allah then you would say, “This is the disposal of affairs by a Sovereign in His Kingdom, and He has the right to do whatever He wants.”
He cannot be questioned as to what He does, while they [the creation] will be asked. [Qur’an, Surah Al-Anbiyaa’ (21:23)].
Accordingly this understanding was part of the condolence of the Prophet to his daughter [following the death of her child] when he said:
“Whatever Allah takes belongs to Him, and to Him belongs what He grants, and everything with Him has an appointed fixed term [in this world].” [100]
Man should not act conceitedly upon accomplishing something because this accomplishment is from Allah and the Sovereignty is exclusively His.
And Allah knows best. May the salah and salaam of Allah be upon our Prophet Muhammed and upon his family and all of his companions.
والحَمْدُ لله
This work has been accomplished by the Will of Allah Who had bestowed upon me the ability to present it to the English-speaking community within the Muslim ummah. It was completed after salatul ‘asr on Saturday, the 2d of Rabbi’ al-Awwal of the year 1419 after the Hijrah of Prophet Muhammad.
I ask Allah, the Most High, who is above everything and to Whom belongs the Most Perfect Names and Most Exalted Attributes to make this effort sincerely done seeking His Face, and to make it beneficial for me and for the Muslims everywhere, and to forgive me my sins and those of my parents, my family, the salafi scholars who passed away and those who are still alive, and the believers. I ask Him, to grant me and our brothers and sisters the sincerity in our sayings and deeds and to correct our deeds in accordance with the way of our Prophet Muhammad. I ask Him to save us from the Fire of Hell and to admit us to His Firdaws in al-Jannah by His Mercy. May Allah guide those who deviated from the path of the salaf to the truth, and those who are confused to His Light. May He bestow upon me and the Muslims the steadfastness on the path of as-salaf as-salih in this life, at the time of death, and in the grave. Aameen. Saleh As-Saleh, ‘Unayzah, KSA.
Footnotes>
[85]The Shaykh also stated that he is in doubt whether the word إله is a Name of Allah because it is an indefinite noun (gram. nakirah).

[86]Ad-Dunya (fem. of adna): Denoting what is low or inferior.

[87]Qayyumiyyah: One of Allah’s Attributes implied in His Name Al-Qayyum.

[88]Allah is the one who sustains, protects, prepares, and runs the affairs of all things as He wills in accordance with His Knowledge, Wisdom, and Justice.

[89]Zahrawayn (dual form of zahra): The bright ones. The Prophet (r) said, “Recite the Qur’an, for on the Day of Resurrection it will come as an intercessor for those who recite it. Recite the two bright ones, Al-Baqarah and Surah Aal-’Imraan, for on the Day of Resurrection they will come as two clouds or two shades, or two flocks of birds in ranks, pleading for those who recite them. Recite Surah Al-Baqarah, for to take recourse to it is a blessing and to give it up is a cause of grief, and the magicians cannot confront it.” Reported in Sahih Muslim (English Translation), vol. 2, no. 1757.

[90]In Al-Baqarah (2:255), in Aal-’Imraan (3:2), and in Taha (20:111). Abu Umaamah ((??? ???? ??? reported that the Prophet (r) said, “Allah’s Most Great Name is in three Surahs in the Qur’an, in Surah Al-Baqarah and in Aal-’Imraan and in Surah Taha.” Al-Qaasim bin ‘Abdur-Rahman, one of the narrators of this hadeeth, searched the Qur’an and found Ayatul-Kursi in Surah Al-Baqarah الله لا إله إلاَّ هو الحَيُّ القَيُّوم } { (2:255); and: { ألم* الله لا إله إلاَّ هو الحَيُّ القَيُّوم } in Surah Aal-’Imran (3:2); and: { وَعَنَتِ الوُجُوهُ للحَيِّ القَيُّوم } in Surah Taha (20:111). Reported by al-Hakim, ibn Majah, at-Tabarani , at-Tahawi, and others. Shaykh al-Albani authenticated its isnad (Silsilat Al-Ahadith As-Sahiha), vol. 2, no. 746.

[91]The Shaykh ( حفظه الله ) made the above statement in his explanation of Surah Al-Kahf, in the month of Rabi’ al-Awwal,1419. Evidence from the Qur’an is in Surah At-Talaq (65:12) and from the sunnah as in the agreed upon hadith, “Whoever usurps the land of somebody unjustly, his neck will be encircled with seven earths [on the Day of Resurrection].” [See Sahih Al-Bukhari (Arabic/English)], vol. 3, no. 632.

[92]Those who say that whatever man does it is entirely of his own ability and free will, and that Allah’s mashee’ah (Will) and qudrah (Ability) have no influence whatsoever on what man does. They also claim that the knowledge of Allah does not comprehend the actions of the creation until after they are executed.

[93]Kharijites (Ar.Khawarij, sing. Khariji). See Appendix B.

[94]The Mu’tazilah (from i’tazala: “to remove oneself” or “to withdraw”). See Appendix C.

[95]See both interpretations of this ayah (which means): And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills, pp. 33-34.

[96]Meaning that man has a totally independent free will and that Allah’s Will and Power has no effect in this.

[97]See Appendix D.

[98]Hululiyyah [from hulool (lit. “settling,” “alighting,” “lodging,” “descent,” and by extension “incarnation”]. The most common definition is that it refers to the doctrine of Divine incarnation in the human form. In mystic sufism it refers to the Divine incarnation in the sufi saints. Shaykh-ul-Islam ibn Taymiyah classified the Hululiyyah into two kinds. The first is the specific hulool like the claim of the Christians that Allah is incarnated in ‘Eessa u and like that of the extremist raafidah and sufi mystics who claim that Allah is incarnated in ‘Ali ibn Abee Talib t and in special sufi saints, respectively. The second kind is the general hulool and it is the saying that “Allah, in His Essence, is everywhere.” [See Al-Fatawaa], vol. 2, pp. 171-172.

[99]It could be a major or a minor form of shirk depending upon the motive behind his reliance. Al-Hamdullilaah, the author, Shaykh Muhammad bin ‘Uthaymin ( رحمه الله ) personally affirmed this explanation to me in Jamada Al-Aakhirah, 1419Hj.

[100]An agreed upon hadeeth. [See Sahih Al-Bukhari (Arabic/English)], vol .2, no .

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1 COMMENT

  1. Presentation/Explanation should be relevant to topic i.e. minimum brackets/interruptions
    bare minimum. I manage to read 25% (with all respect to author) of the article with all good intention due to long winding side tracks. My suggestion (with all respect) for article presentation
    which would be more beneficial to reader as follows:
    1) Minimize interruptions/brackets
    2) Short sentence, avoid too many cross references (it is not an academic thesis)
    3) Use abbreviation i.e. Allah Subhaan-Allah-Talah (ST) instead repeating.
    4) Stick to your main target/objective
    5) Please revise at least 5 times (please try at least review by one 3rd person).
    Thank you.

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