Islaam is the complete submission and obedience to Allah (God).
The name Allah (God) in Islaam never refers to Muhammad (pbuh), as many Christians may think;
Allah is the personal name of God.
What do Muslims believe about Allah?
- He is the one God, Who has no partner.
- Nothing is like Him. He is the Creator, not created, nor a part of His creation.
- He is All-Powerful, absolutely Just.
- There is no other entity in the entire universe worthy of worship besides Him.
- He is First, Last, and Everlasting; He was when nothing was, and will be when nothing else
- He is the All-Knowing, and All-Merciful, the Supreme, the Sovereign.
- It is only He Who is capable of granting life to anything.
- He sent His Messengers (peace be upon them) to guide all of mankind.
- He sent Muhammad (pbuh) as the last Prophet and Messenger for all mankind.
- His book is the Holy Qur’aan, the only authentic revealed book in the world that has been
kept without change.
- Allah knows what is in our hearts.
These are some of the basic guidelines Muslims follow in their knowledge of God:
- Eliminate any anthropomorphism (human qualities) from their conception of Allah. His
attributes are not like human attributes,despite similar labels or appellations.
- Have unwavering faith in exactly what Allah and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) described Allah to
be, no more, no less.
- Eradicate any hope or desire of learning or knowing the modality of His names and
- Belief totally in all the names and attributes of Allah; one cannot believe in some and
disbelieve the others.
- One cannot accept the names of Allah without their associated attributes, i.e. one cannot
say He is Al-Hayy – ‘The Living’ and then say that He is without life.
- Similarity in names (or meanings) does not imply similarity in what is being described
(referents). As a robotic arm differs from a human arm, so the “hand” of Allah is nothing like a
human hand, His speech is nothing like human speech, etc.
- Certain words are ambiguous or vague in their meanings, and thus may be susceptible to
misinterpretation. Only those meanings that are in accordance with what is specified by Allah
and His Prophet (pbuh) are acceptable.
Islaam places great emphasis on cleanliness, in both its physical and spiritual aspects. On the
physical side, Islaam requires the Muslim to clean his body, his clothes, his house, and the
whole community, and he is rewarded by God for doing so. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said, for
| “Removing any harm from the road is charity (that will be rewarded by Allah).” [Bukhari]|
While people generally consider cleanliness a desirable attribute, Islaam insists on it , making
it an indispensible fundamental of the faith. A muslim is required to to be pure morally and
spiritually as well as physically. Through the Qur’aan and Sunnah Islaam requires the sincere
believer to sanitize and purify his entire way of life. In the Qur’aan Allah commends those who
are accustomed to cleanliness:
| “Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and
clean.” [Qur’aan 2:22]
In Islaam the Arabic term for purity is Taharah. Books of Islaamic jurisprudence often contain an
entire chapter with Taharah as a heading.
Allah orders the believer to be tidy in appearance:
|“Keep your clothes clean.” [Qur’aan 74:4]|
The Qur’aan insists that the believer maintain a constant state of purity:
| “Believers! When you prepare for prayer wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows;
rub your heads (with water) and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are ritually impure
bathe your whole body.” [Qur’aan 5:6]
Ritual impurity refers to that resulting from sexual release, menstruation and the first forty
days after childbirth. Muslims also use water, not paper or anything else to after eliminating
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised the Muslims to appear neat and tidy in private and in public.
Once when returning home from battle he advised his army:
| “You are soon going to meet your brothers, so tidy your saddles and clothes. Be distinguished in
the eyes of the people.” [Abu Dawud]
On another occasion he said:
| “Don’t ever come with your hair and beard disheveled like a devil.” [Al-Tirmidhi]|
And on another:
| “Had I not been afraid of overburdening my community, I would have ordered them to brush their
teeth for every prayer.” [Bukhari]
Moral hygeine was not ignored, either, for the Prophet (pbuh) encouraged the muslims to make a
special prayer upon seeing themselves in the mirror:
| “Allah, You have endowed me with a good form; likewise bless me with an immaculate character and
forbid my face from touching the Hellfire.” [Ahmad]
And modesty in dress, for men as well as for women, assists one in maintaining purity of thought.
Being charitable is a way of purifying one’s wealth. A Muslim who does not give charity (Sadaqah)
and pay the required annual Zakah, the 2.5% alms-tax, has in effect contaminated his wealth by
hoarding that which rightfully belongs to others:
|“Of their wealth take alms so that you may purify and sanctify them.” [Qur’aan 9:103]|
All the laws and injunctions given by Allah and His Prophet (pbuh) are pure; on the other hand,
man-made laws suffer from the impurities of human bias and other imperfections. Thus any formal
law can only be truly just when it is purified by divine guidance – as elucidated by the Qur’aan
and the Sunnah – or if it is divinely ordained to begin with – the Shari’ah.
Muslims have always had a special interest in astronomy. The moon and the sun are of vital
importance in the daily life of every Muslim. By the moon, Muslims determine the beginning and
the end of the months in their lunar calendar. By the sun the Muslims calculate the times for
prayer and fasting. It is also by means of astronomy that Muslims can determine the precise
direction of the Qiblah, to face the Ka’bah in Makkah, during prayer. The most precise solar
calendar, superior to the Julian, is the Jilali, devised
under the supervision of Umar Khayyam. The Qur’aan contains many references to astronomy.
| “The heavens and the earth were ordered rightly, and were made subservient to man, including the
sun, the moon, the stars, and day and night. Every heavenly body moves in an orbit assigned to it
by God and never digresses, making the universe an orderly cosmos whose life and existence,
diminution and expansion, are
These references, and the injunctions to learn, inspired the early Muslim scholars to study the
heavens. They integrated the earlier works of the Indians, Persians and Greeks into a new
synthesis. Ptolemy’s Almagest (the title as we know it is Arabic) was translated, studied and
criticized. Many new stars were discovered, as we see in their Arabic names – Algol, Deneb,
Betelgeuse, Rigel, Aldebaran. Astronomical tables were compiled, among them the Toledan tables,
which were used by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe and
Kepler. Also compiled were almanacs – another Arabic term. Other terms from Arabic are zenith,
nadir, albedo, azimuth.
Muslim astronomers were the first to establish observatories, like the one built at Mugharah by
Hulagu, the son of Genghis Khan, in Persia, and they invented instruments such as the quadrant
which led to advances not only in astronomy but in oceanic navigation, contributing to the
European age of exploration.
Muslim scholars paid great attention to geography. In fact, the Muslims’ great concern for
geography originated with their religion. The Qur’aan encourages people to travel throughout the
earth to see God’s signs and patterns everywhere. Islaam also requires each Muslim to have at
least enough knowledge of geography to know the direction of the Qiblah (the position of the
Ka’bah in Makkah) in order to pray five times a day. Muslims were also used to taking long
journeys to conduct trade as well as to make the
Hajj and spread their religion. The far-flung Islaamic empire enabled scholar-explorers to
compile large amounts of geographical and climatic information from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
Among the most famous names in the field of geography, even in the West, are Ibn Khaldun and Ibn
Batuta, renowned for their written accounts of their extensive explorations.
In 1166, Al-Idrisi, the well-known Muslim scholar who served the Sicilian court, produced very
accurate maps, including a world map with all the continents and their mountains, rivers and
famous cities. Al-Muqdishi was the first geographer to produce accurate maps in color.
It was, moreover, with the help of Muslim navigators and their inventions that Magellan was able
to traverse the Cape of Good Hope, and Da Gama and Columbus had Muslim navigators on board their
Seeking knowledge is obligatory in Islaam for every Muslim, man and woman. The main sources of
Islaam, the Qur’aan and the Sunnah (Prophet Muhammad’s traditions), encourage Muslims to seek
knowledge and be scholars, since this is the best way for people to know Allah (God), to
appreciate His wondrous creations and be thankful for them. Muslims were therefore eager to seek
knowledge, both religious and secular, and within a few years of Muhammad’s mission, a great
civilization sprang up and flourished. The
outcome is shown in the spread of Islaamic universities; Al-Zaytunah in Tunis, and Al-Azhar in
Cairo go back more than 1,000 years and are the oldest existing universities in the world.
Indeed, they were the models for the first European universities, such as Bologna, Heidelberg,
and the Sorbonne. Even the
familiar academic cap and gown originated at Al-Azhar University.
Muslims made great advances in many different fields, such as geography, physics, chemistry,
mathematics, medicine, pharmacology, architecture, linguistics and astronomy. Algebra and the
Arabic numerals were introduced to the world by Muslim scholars. The astrolabe, the quadrant, and
other navigational devices and maps were developed by Muslim scholars and played an important
role in world
progress, most notably in Europe’s age of exploration.
Muslim scholars studied the ancient civilations from Greece and Rome to China and India. The
works of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid and others were translated into Arabic. Muslim scholars and
scientists then added their own creative ideas, discoveries and inventions, and finally
transmitted this new knowledge to
Europe, leading directly to the Rennaissance. Many scientific and medical treatises, having been
translated into Latin, were standard text and reference books as late as the 17th and 18th
It is interesting to note that Islaam so strongly urges mankind to study and explore the
universe. For example, the Holy Qur’aan states:
| “We (Allah) will show you (mankind) Our signs/patterns in the horizons/universe and in
yourselves until you are convinced that the revelation is the truth.” [Qur’aan, 14:53]
This invitation to explore and search made Muslims interested in astronomy, mathematics,
chemistry, and the other sciences, and they had a very clear and firm understanding of the
correspondences among geometry, mathematics, and astronomy.
The Muslims invented the symbol for zero (The word “cipher” comes from Arabic sifr), and they
organized the numbers into the decimal system – base 10. Additionally, they invented the symbol
to express an unkown quantity, i.e. variables like x.
The first great Muslim mathematician, Al-Khawarizmi, invented the subject of algebra (al-Jabr),
which was further developed by others, most notably Umar Khayyam. Al-Khawarizmi’s work, in Latin
brought the Arabic numerals along with the mathematics to Europe, through Spain. The word
“algorithm” is derived from his name.
Muslim mathematicians excelled also in geometry, as can be seen in their graphic arts, and it was
the great Al-Biruni (who excelled also in the fields of natural history, even geology and
mineralogy) who established trigonometry as a distinct branch of mathematics. Other Muslim
mathematicians made significant progress in number theory.
In Islaam, the human body is a source of appreciation, as it is created by Almighty Allah (God).
How it functions, how to keep it clean and safe, how to prevent diseases from attacking it or
cure those diseases, have been important issues for Muslims.
Prophet Muhammad himself urged people to “take medicines for your diseases”, as people at that
time were reluctant to do so. He also said,
| “God created no illness, but established for it a cure, except for old age. When the antidote is
applied, the patient will recover with the permission of God.”
This was strong motivation to encourage Muslim scientists to explore, develop, and apply
empirical laws. Much attention was given to medicine and public health care. The first hospital
was built in Baghdad in 706 AC. The Muslims also used camel caravans as mobile hospitals, which
moved from place to place.
Since the religion did not forbid it, Muslim scholars used human cadavers to study anatomy and
physiology and to help their students understand how the body functions. This empirical study
enabled surgery to develop very quickly.
Al-Razi, known in the West as Rhazes, the famous physician and scientist, (d. 932) was one of the
greatest physicians in the world in the Middle Ages. He stressed empirical observation and
clinical medicine and was inrivalled as a diagnostician. He also wrote a treatise on hygeine in
hospitals. Khalaf Abul-Qasim Al-Zahrawi was a very famous surgeon in the eleventh century, known
in Europe for his work, Concessio (Kitab al-Tasrif).
Ibn Sina (d. 1037), better known to the West as Avicenna, was perhaps the greatest physician
until the modern era. His famous book, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, remained a standard textbook even in
Europe, for over 700 years. Ibn Sina’s work is still studied and built upon in the East.
Other significant contributions were made in pharmacology, such as Ibn Sina’s Kitab al-Shifa’
(Book of Healing), and in public health. Every major city in the Islaamic world had a number of
excellent hospitals, some of them teaching hospitals, and many of them were specialized for
particular diseases, including mental and emotional. The Ottomans were particularly noted for
their building of hospitals and for the high level of hygeine practiced in them.
The word Islaam has a two-fold meaning: peace, and submission to God. This submission requires a
fully conscious and willing effort to submit to the one Almighty God. One must consciously and
conscientiously give oneself to the service of Allah. This means to act on what Allah enjoins
all of us to do (in the Qur’an) and what His beloved Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh) encouraged us to do
in his Sunnah (his lifestyle and sayings personifying the Qur’an).
Once we humble ourselves, rid ourselves of our egoism and submit totally to Allah, and to Him
exclusively, in faith and in action, we will surely feel peace in our hearts. Establishing peace
in our hearts will bring about peace in our external conduct as well.
Islaam is careful to remind us that it not a religion to be paid mere lip service; rather it is
an all-encompassing way of life that must be practiced continuously for it to be Islaam. The
Muslim must practice the five pillars of the religion: the declaration of faith in the oneness of
Allah and the prophethood of Muhammad (pbuh), prayer, fasting the month of Ramadan, alms-tax,
and the pilgrimage to Makkah; and believe in the six articles of faith: belief in God, the Holy
Books, the prophets, the angels, the Day of Judgment and God’s decree, whether for good or ill.
There are other injunctions and commandments which concern virtually all facets of one’s
personal, family and civic life. These include such matters as diet, clothing, personal hygeine,
interpersonal relations, business ethics, responsibilities towards parents, spouse and children,
marriage, divorce and inheritance, civil and criminal law, fighting in defense of Islaam,
relations with non-Muslims, and so
Islaam has been from its inception very concerned with issues of human rights. Privacy, freedom,
dignity and equality are guaranteed in Islaam. The holy Qur’an states clearly:
|“There is no compulsion in religion.”|
And there are no reliable reports to confirm the old accusations that when the Muslim armies were
expanding into Asia, Africa and Europe the people were put to the sword if they failed to convert
to Islaam. The best proof is that not only did the Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians and Hindus in
those areas not perish or otherwise disappear, they actually flourished as protected minority
communities, and many individuals rose to prominent positions in the arts, sciences, even in
The lives,property and privacy of all citizens in an Islaamic state are considered sacred,
whether or not the person is Muslim. Non-Muslims have freedom of worship and the practice of
their religions, including their own family law and religious courts. They are obliged to pay a
different tax (Jizyah) instead of the Zakah, and the state is obligated to provide both
protection and government services. Before the modern era it was extremely rare to find a state
or government anywhere in the world that was as solicitous of its minorities and their civil
rights as the Islaamic states.
In no other religion did women receive such a degree of legal and moral equality and personal
respect. Moreover, racism and tribalism are incompatible with Islaam, for the Qur’an speaks of
human equality in the following terms:
| “Mankind! We created you from a single soul, male and female, and made you into nations and
tribes, that you may come to know one another. Truly, the most honored of you in God’s sight is
the greatest of you in piety.”
Islaam honors all the prophets who were sent to mankind. Muslims respect all prophets in general,
but Jesus in particular, because he was one of the prophets who foretold the coming of Muhammad.
Muslims, too, await the second coming of Jesus. They consider him one of the greatest of Allah’s
prophets to mankind. A Muslim does not refer to him simply as “Jesus,” but normally adds the
phrase “peace be upon him” as a sign of respect.
No other religion in the world respects and dignifies Jesus as Islaam does. The Qur’an confirms
his virgin birth (a chapter of the Qur’an is entitled “Mary”), and Mary is considered to have
been one of the purest women in all creation. The Qur’an describes Jesus’ birth as follows:
| “Behold!’ the Angel said, God has chosen you, and purified you, and chosen you above the women of
all nations. Mary, God gives you good news of a word from Him, whose name shall be the Messiah,
Jesus son of Mary, honored in this world and in the Hereafter, and one of those brought near to
God. He shall speak to the people from his cradle and in maturity, and he shall be of the
righteous. She said: “My Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me?’ He said: “Even
so; God creates what He will. When He decrees a thing, He says to it, ‘Be!’ and it is.” [Qur’aan
Muslims believe that Jesus was born immaculately, and through the same power which had brought
Eve to life and Adam into being without a father or a mother.
| “Truly, the likeness of Jesus with God is as the likeness of Adam. He created him of dust, and
then said to him, ‘Be!’ and he was.” [3:59]
During his prophetic mission, Jesus performed many miracles. The Qur’aan tells us that he said:
| “I have come to you with a sign from your Lord: I make for you out of clay, as it were, the
figure of a bird, and breathe into it and it becomes a bird by God’s leave. And I heal the blind,
and the lepers, and I raise the dead by God’s leave.” [Qur’aan 3:49]
Muhammad and Jesus, as well as the other prophets, were sent to confirm the belief in one God.
This is referred to in the Qur’an where Jesus is reported as saying that he came:
| “To attest the law which was before me, and to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden you;
I have come to you with a sign from your Lord, so fear God and obey me.” [Qur’aan 3:50]
Prophet Muhammad emphasized the importance of Jesus by saying:
| “Whoever believes there is no god but Allah, alone without partner, that Muhammad is His
messenger, that Jesus is a servant and messenger of God, His word breathed into Mary and a spirit
emanating from Him, and that Paradise and Hell are true, shall be received by God into Heaven.
Islaam urges people to read and learn on every occasion. The verses of the Qur’an command,
advise, warn, and encourage people to observe the phenomena of nature, the succession of day and
night, the movements of stars, the sun, moon, and other heavenly bodies. Muslims are urged to
look into everything in the universe, to travel, investigate, explore and understand them, the
better to appreciate and be thankful for all the wonders and beauty of God’s creations. The first
revelation to Muhammad showed how much Islaam cares about knowledge.
|“Read, in the name of your Lord, Who created…” [Qur’aan 96:1]|
Learning is obligatory for both men and women. Moreover, education is not restricted to religious
issues; it includes all fields of knowledge, including biology, physics, and technology. Scholars
have the highest status in Islaam, second only to that accorded to prophets.
Almost from the very beginnings of the Islaamic state Muslims began to study and to master a
number of fields of so-called secular learning, beginning with linguistics and architecture, but
very quickly extending to mathematics, physics, astronomy, geography, medicine, chemistry and
philosophy. They translated and synthesized the known works of the ancient world, from Greece,
Persia, India, even China. Before long they were criticizing, improving and expanding on that
knowledge. Centuries before the European Renaissance there were Muslim Renaissance men, men who
were simultaneously explorers, cientists, philosophers, physicians and poets, like Ibn Sina
(Avicenna), Umar Khayyam, and others.
The first pillar of Islaam is that a Muslim believe and declare his faith by saying the Shahadah
(lit. ‘witness’), also known as the Kalimah:
| La ilaha ila Allah; Muhammadur-rasul Allah. ‘There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the
Messenger of Allah.’
This declaration contains two parts. The first part refers to God Almighty, the Creator of
everything, the Lord of the Worlds; the second part refers to the Messenger, Muhammad (pbuh) a
prophet and a human being, who received the revelation through the Archangel Gabriel, and taught
it to mankind.
By sincerely uttering the Shahadah the Muslim acknowledges Allah as the sole Creator of all, and
the Supreme Authority over everything and everyone in the universe. Consequently the Muslim
closes his/her heart and mind to loyalty, devotion and obedience to, trust in, reliance on, and
worship of anything or anyone other than Allah. This rejection is not confined merely to pagan
gods and goddesses of wood and stone and created by human hands and imaginations; this rejection
must extend to all other conceptions,
superstitions, ideologies, ways of life, and authority figures that claim supreme devotion,
loyalty, trust, love, obedience or worship. This entails, for example, the rejection of belief in
such common things as astrology, palm reading, good luck charms, fortune-telling and psychic
readings, in addition to praying at shrines or graves of “saints”, asking the dead souls to
intercede for them with Allah. There are no intercessors in Islaam, nor any class of clergy as
such; a Muslim prays directly and exclusively
Belief in the prophethood of Muhammad (pbuh) entails belief in the guidance brought by him and
contained in his Sunnah (traditions of his sayings and actions), and demands of the Muslim the
intention to follow his guidance faithfully. Muhammad (pbuh) was also a human being, a man with
feelings and emotions, who ate, drank and slept, and was born and died, like other men. He had a
pure and upright nature, extraordinary righteousness, and an unwavering faith in Allah and
commitment to Islaam, but he was not divine. Muslims do not pray to him, not even as an
intercessor, and Muslims abhor the terms “Mohamedan” and “Mohamedanism”.
Prayer (Salah), in the sense of worship, is the second pillar of Islaam. Prayer is obligatory and
must be performed five times a day. These five times are dawn (Fajr), immediately after noon
(Dhuhr), mid-afternoon (‘Asr), sunset (Maghrib), and early night (Isha’). Ritual cleanliness and
ablution are required before prayer, as are clean clothes and location, and the removal of shoes.
One may pray individually or communally, at home, outside, virtually any clean place, as well as
in a mosque, though the latter is preferred. Special is the Friday noon prayer, called Jum’aah.
It, too, is obligatory and is to be done in a mosque, in congregation. It is accompanied by a
sermon (Khutbah), and it replaces the normal Dhuhr prayer.
There is no hierarchical clerical authority in Islaam, no priests or ministers. Prayers are led
by any learned person who knows the Qur’an and is chosen by the congregation. He (or she, if the
congregation is all women) is called the imam. There is also no minimum number of congregants
required to hold communal prayers. Prayer consists of verses from the Qur’an and other prayers,
accompanied by various bodily postures – standing, bowing, prostrating and sitting. They are said
in Arabic, the language of the
revelation, though personal supplications (Du’ah) can be offered in one’s own language.
Worshippers face the Qiblah, the direction of the Ka’bah in the city of Makkah.
The significance of prayer lies in one’s maintaining a continuous link to God five times a day,
which helps the worshipper avoid misdeeds if he/she performs the prayers sincerely. In addition
it promotes discipline, God-consciousness and placing one’s trust in Allah alone, and the
importance of striving for the Hereafter. When performed in congregation it also provides a
strong sense of community, equality and brotherhood/sisterhood.
The fourth pillar of Islaam is fasting. Allah prescribes daily fasting for all able, adult
Muslims during the whole of the month of Ramadhaan, the ninth month of the lunar calendar,
beginning with the sighting of the new moon. Exempted from the fast are the very old and the
insane. On the physical side, fasting is from first light of dawn until sundown, abstaining from
food, drink, and sexual relations. On the moral, behavioral side, one must abstain from lying,
malicious gossip, quarreling and trivial nonsense.
Those who are sick, elderly, or on a journey, and women who are menstruating, pregnant, or
nursing are permitted to break the fast, but must make up an equal number of days later in the
year. If physically unable to do so, they must feed a needy person for each day missed. Children
begin to fast (and to observe the prayers) from puberty, although many start earlier.
Although fasting is beneficial to the health, it is regarded principally as a method of
self-purification. By cutting oneself off from worldly pleasures and comforts, even for a short
time, the fasting person gains true sympathy for those who go hungry regularly, and achieves
growth in his spiritual life, learning discipline, self-restraint, patience and flexibility.
In addition to the fast proper, one is encouraged to read the entire Qur’aan. In addition,
prayers, called Tarawih, are held in the mosque every night of the month, during which a whole
section of the Qur’aan (Juz’) is recited, so that by the end of the month the entire Qur’aan has
been completed. These are done in remembrance of the fact that the revelation of the Qur’an to
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was begun during Ramadhaan.
During the last ten days – though the exact day is never known and may not even be the same every
year – occurs the Night of Power (Laylat al-Qadr). To spend that night in worship is equivalent
to a thousand months of worship, i.e. Allah’s reward for it is very great.
On the first day of the following month, after another new moon has been sighted, a special
celebration is made, called ‘Id al-Fitr. A quantity of staple food is donated to the poor (Zakat
al-Fitr), everyone has bathed and put on their best, preferably new, clothes, and communal
prayers are held in the early morning, followed by feasting and visiting relatives and friends.
There are other fast days throughout the year. Muslims are encouraged to fast six days in
Shawwal, the month following Ramadhaan, Mondays and Thursdays, and the ninth and tenth, or tenth
and eleventh of Muharram, the first month of the year. The tenth day, called Ashurah, is also a
fast day for the Jews (Yom Kippur), and Allah commanded the Muslims to fast two days to
distinguish themselves from the People of the Book.
While fasting per se is encouraged, constant fasting, as well as monasticism, celibacy, and
otherwise retreating from the real world, are condemned in Islaam. Fasting on the two festival
days, ‘Id al-Fitr and ‘Id al-Adha, the feast of the Hajj, is strictly forbidden.
The third pillar of Islaam is the alms-tax (Zakah). It is a tax on wealth, payable on various
categories of property, notably savings and investments, produce, inventory of goods, salable
crops and cattle, and precious metals, and is to be used for the various categories of
distribution specified by Islaamic law. It is also an act of purification through sharing what
one has with others.
The rationale behind this is that Muslims believe that everything belongs to God, and wealth is
held by man as a trust. This trust must be discharged, moreover, as instructed by God, as that
portion of our wealth legally belongs to other people and must be given to them. If we refuse and
hoard this wealth, it is considered impure and unclean. If, for example one were to use that
wealth for charity or to finance one’s pilgrimage to Makkah, those acts would also be impure,
invalid, and of course unrewarded. Allah
|“Of their wealth, take alms so you may purify and sanctify them.” [Qur’aan 9:103]|
The word Zakah means purification and growth. Our possessions are purified by setting aside that
portion of it for those in need. Each Muslim calculates his or her own Zakah individually.
For most purposes this involves the payment each year of 2.5% of one’s capital, provided that
capital reaches a certain minimum amount that which is not consumed by its owner. A generous
person can pay more than this amount, though it is treated and rewarded as voluntary charity
(Sadaqah). This amount of money is provided to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor, and
can be used in many useful projects for the welfare of the community.
Historically the pillar of Zakah became mandatory on Muslims form the second year after the
Hijrah, 622 C.E. It is mentioned more than thirty times in the Qur’an, usually in the same breath
as Salah. So important is this pillar that one is not considered a part of the Islaamic
brotherhood if one ignores this obligation.
The fifth pillar of Islaam is to make a pilgrimage (Hajj) to Makkah, in Saudi Arabia, at least
once in one’s lifetime. This pillar is obligatory for every Muslim, male or female, provided that
he/she is physically and financially able to do so. Prerequisites for performing the Hajj are to
be a Muslim, to be
free, to be an adult or mature enough, to be of sound mind, and to have the ability to afford the
journey and maintain one’s dependents back home for the duration. The reward for the Hajj is
nothing less than Paradise.
The Hajj is the ultimate form of worship, as it involves the spirit of all the other rituals and
demands of the believer great sacrifice. On this unique occasion, nearly two million Muslims from
all over the globe meet one another in a given year. Regardless of the season, pilgrims wear
special clothes (Ihram) – two, very simple, unsewn white garments – which strips away all
distinctions of wealth, status, class and
culture; all stand together and equal before Allah (God).
The rites of Hajj, which go back to the time of Prophet Abraham who built the Ka’bah, are
observed over five or six days, beginning on the eighth day of the last month of the year, named
Dhul-Hijjah (pilgrimage). These rites include circumambulating the Ka’bah (Tawwaf), and going
between the mountains of Safa and Marwah, as Hajjar (Abraham’s wife) did during her search for
water for her son Isma’il. Then the pilgrims stand together on the wide plain of Arafah and join
in prayers for God’s forgiveness, in what is often thought of as a preview of the Last Judgment.
The pilgrims also cast stones at a stone pillar which represents Satan. The pilgrimage ends with
a festival, called ‘Id al-Adha, which is celebrated with prayers, the sacrifice of an animal, and
the exchange of greetings and gifts in Muslim communities everywhere.
Muhammad (pbuh) was an illiterate but wise and well-respected man who was born in Makkah in the
year 570 C.E., at a time when Christianity was not yet fully established in Europe. His first
years were marked by the deaths of his parents. Since his father died before his birth, his
uncle, Abu Talib, from the respected tribe of Quraysh, raised him. As Muhammad (pbuh) grew up, he
became known for his truthfulness, generosity and sincerity, so that he was sought after for his
ability to arbitrate in disputes. His
reputation and personal qualities also led to his marriage, at the age of twenty-five, to
Khadijah, a widow whom he had assisted in business. Thenceforth, he became an important and
trusted citizen of Makkah. Historians describe him as calm and meditative.
Muhammad (pbuh) never felt fully content to be part of a society whose values he considered to be
devoid of true religious significance. It became his habit to retreat from time to time to the
cave of Hira’, to meditate near the summit of Jabal al-Nur, the “Mountain of Light”, near Makkah.
At the age of 40, while engaged in one such meditative retreat, Muhammad (pbuh) received his
first revelation from God through the Angel Gabriel. This revelation, which continued for
twenty-three years, is known as the Qur’aan, the faithful recording of the entire revelation of
God. The first revelation read:
| “Recite: In the name of your Lord Who created man from a clot (of blood). Recite: Your Lord is
It was this reality that he gradually and steadily came to learn and believe, until he fully
realized that it is the truth.
His first convert was Khadijah, whose support and companionship provided necessary reassurance
strength. He also won the support of some of his relatives and friends. Three basic themes of the
early message were the majesty of the one, unique God, the futility of idol worship, the threat
of judgment, and the necessity of faith, compassion and morality in human affairs. All these
themes represented an attack on the crass materialism and idolatry prevalent in Makkah at the
time. So when he began to proclaim the message to others the Makkans rejected him. He and his
small group of followers suffered bitter persecution, which grew so fierce that in the year 622
C.E., God gave them the command to emigrate. This event, the Hijrah (migration), in which they
left Makkah for the city of Madinah, some 260 miles to the north, marked the beginning of a new
era and thus the beginning of the Muslim calendar. During his suffering, Muhammad (pbuh) drew
comfort from the knowledge revealed to him about other prophets, such as Abraham, Joseph, and
Moses, each of whom had also been persecuted and tested.
After several years and some significant battles, the Prophet and his followers were able to
return to Makkah, where they forgave their enemies and established Islaam definitively. By the
time the Prophet died, at the age of 63, the greater part of Arabia had accepted Islaam, and
within a century of his death, Islaam had spread as far west as Spain and as far east as China.
It was clear that the message was not limited to Arabs; it was for the whole of humanity.
The Prophet’s sayings (Hadith), are also believed to be revelation. The number of sayings
collected by his followers and scholars is about 10,000. Some typical examples of his sayings are
| “To pursue knowledge is obligatory on every believing (man and woman).” [Ibn Majah]|
| “Removing a harmful thing from the road is charity.” [Bukhari, Muslim]|
| “Those who do not show tenderness and love cannot expect to have tenderness shown to them.”
| “Adore Allah (God) as though you see Him; even if you do not see Him, He nonetheless sees you.”|
Although Muhammad is deeply loved, revered and emulated by Muslims as God’s final messenger, he
is not an object of worship.
Islaam is the religion of all prophets. Muslims believe that all the prophets were sent to their
respective peoples from God (Allah). They all had the same mission and message – guiding people
to the right path.
The three revealed, monotheistic religions, Islaam, Christianity, and Judaism, go back to
Abraham. The prophets of these religions were directly descended from him – Moses, Jesus and
others from Isaac, but Muhammad from Ismail. It was Prophet Abraham who had established the
settlement which today is the city of Makkah, and with his son Ismail built the Kabah, which
Muslims all over the world face when they pray.
Christians and Jews hold a special place in Islaam. They are called the People of the Book (Ahl
al-Kitab), since the original Torah and Gospel were also divinely revealed and they shared in the
prophetic tradition. Islaamic states have nearly always shown their religious minorities
tolerance and respect and those communities flourished under Islaamic rule. God says:
| “…[Those] who believe (in the message of Islaam), and the Jews, the Sabaeans, and the
Christians – all those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and act righteously – no fear
shall come upon them…” [Qur’aan 5:69]
Setting up the Islaamic state in Madinah, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) further warned:
| “Whoever oppresses any Dhimmi (non-Muslim citizen of the Islaamic state), I shall be his
prosecutor on the Day of Judgment.”
In setting up the Islaamic state, Prophet Muhammad made it inclusive of the Arabian Jews and
Christians. Their persons, properties, churches and synagogues were protected, freedom of worship
was guaranteed, and they controlled their own community affairs with their own civil and
religious laws and courts. For most of the first century of the Islaamic state, in fact, the
majority of the citizens were Christians, enjoying peace and liberty such as they had not had
even under Christian Rome or Byzantium.
The Jews, from the very beginning in Madinah, and later everywhere else, were lifted from the
burden of being clients of individual Arab tribes to being citizens of the state, thus freeing
them to focus on their Jewishness. When the Islaamic state expanded outside Arabia the Jews of
other lands were treated for the first time as liberated citizens. Judaism flourished as never
before, with Jews even serving in Muslim armies and administrations while their culture bloomed
in the arts, sciences, medicine and philosophy. This knowledge they transmitted to their brethren
in the hostile climate of Christian Europe.
Even Jewish mysticism originated under the influence of sufism and spread to northern Europe.
When Islaam reached Persia the concept of People of the Book was extended to the Zoroastrians as
well. Later, when the Muslims conquered parts of India and encountered Buddhists and Hindus, who
appeared to worship idols, the question was referred to the ulema (council of scholars), who
judged that even they could have the same protected status as the Jews and Christians, so long as
they did not fight Islaam and they paid the Jizyah tax.
“Peace” is the most common word on a Muslim’s tongue. Whenever two people meet, they exchange
greetings, wishing each other peace: “Peace be upon you.” But peace cannot prevail except through
justice. Since the concept of justice may differ from one man to another, or from one society to
another, Muslims believe that real justice is that which is specified by Allah (God).
Islaam permits fighting in self-defense, in defense of the religion, or by those who have been
expelled forcibly from their homes. At the same time, Islaam requires one to treat one’s enemy
mercifully. It lays down strict rules of combat which include prohibitions against harming
civilians and against destroying crops, trees, and livestock. Islaam also requires that if an
enemy declares his desire to end hostilities and seek peace, the Muslims must do the same.
The concept of Jihad (struggling in the cause of Allah) is stated in the Qur’an. Allah said:
| “Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits. God does not love
transgressors.” [Qur’aan 2:19]
Jihad is never to be waged to force anybody to choose a particular religion. On the contrary, it
is waged to protect his right to choose freely. Therefore, if there is a force in the world that
tries to prevent a person from practicing this right, Jihad may lead to fighting the force that
is trying to prevent him from exercising free will.
Since Islaam is the last religion revealed by Allah, it possesses some elements that make it
unique. One of these is its relevance for human beings regardless of place and time.
This means that Islaam – submission to God – is a comprehensive institution which includes all
guidelines necessary for all aspects of life. Therefore, the best way to understand Islaam is to
look at it as more than a religion – as a complete way of life. In other words, it is a system
which regulates every aspect of life, dealing with all issues – social, economic, educational,
judicial, health, and even
military. Thus, it is suitable for all human beings and for all times, since it is the final
religion. Islaamic law aims to achieve five goals for human beings in life: protecting the
religion, protecting one’s self, protecting one’s possessions, protecting one’s mind, and
protecting one’s offspring.
Therefore, God (Allah) decided on two main domains of law:
- If the domain always requires change and progress, Allah legislated comprehensive yet
flexible rules and gave people the chance to create and develop the necessary laws to satisfy the
specific needs of a certain period of time. For example, in the rule of consultation (Shura),
Allah decided that it should be the general rule for any government; however, its form and style
are left open for people to choose and decide according to their needs.
- If the domain does not require or lend itself to change or progress, Allah legislated fixed
and detailed laws that govern all issues related to a specific area. Thus, there is no way for
man to change or develop those laws, which were made for the welfare of all mankind. For example,
the area of worshipping God contains fixed details which cannot be changed at all. These regard
prayer, fasting, making pilgrimage, etc. Another example is in family matters, such as the laws
of marriage, divorce, and inheritance.
To show how Islaam cares for the environment, one can cite the many laws that protect the
environment. About fourteen hundred years ago. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said:
| “The world is green and beautiful, and Allah has appointed you as His stewards over it. He sees
how you acquit yourselves.”
Muhammad showed how important plants and trees are by saying:
| “Whoever plants a tree and looks after it with care until it matures and becomes productive will
be rewarded in the Hereafter.”
Even in the territory of an enemy, Islaam’s care for plants, animals, and trees is profound. Abu
Bakr, the first Caliph, or successor, to Muhammad (pbuh), instructed his troops that he was
sending into battle not to cut down any trees or kill any animals except for food.
These are but a few examples of how Islaam remains relevant in the modern world.
The ultimate manifestation of God’s grace for man, the ultimate wisdom, and the ultimate beauty
of expression: in short, the word of God. This is how the German scholar, Muhammad Asad, once
described the Qur’aan. If one were to ask any Muslim to depict it, most likely they would offer
similar words. The Qur’aan, to the Muslim, is the irrefutable, inimitable Word of God. It was
revealed by God Almighty, through the instrument of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh)
himself had no role in authoring the Qur’aan, he was merely a human secretary, repeating the
dictates of the Divine Creator:
| “He (Muhammad) does not speak of his own desire. It is no less than an Inspiration sent down to
him.” [Qur’aan 53:3-4]
The Qur’aan was revealed in Arabic, to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), over a period of twenty-three
years. It is composed in a style so unique, that it cannot be deemed either poetry or prose, but
somehow a mixture of both. The Qur’aan is imimitable; it cannot be simulated or copied, and God
Almighty challenges mankind to pursue such an endeavor if he thinks he can:
| “Or do they say he forged it? Say: Bring then a chapter like unto it, and call (to your aid)
anyone you can, beside God, if it be you speak the truth.” [Qur’aan 10:38].
The Qur’aan’s language is indeed sublime, its recitation moving, as one non-Muslim scholar noted,
“it was like the cadence of my heartbeat”. Due to its unique style of language, the Qur’aan is
not only highly readable, but also relatively easy to remember. This latter aspect has played an
important role not only in the Qur’aan’s preservation, but in the spiritual life of Muslims as
well. God Himself declares,
| “And We have indeed made the Qur’aan easy to understand and remember; then is there anyone that
will receive admonition?” [Qur’aan 54:17]
One of the most important characteristics of the Qur’aan is that it remains today, the only holy
book which has never changed; it has remained free from any and all adulterations. Sir William
Muir noted, “There is probably in the world no other book which has remained (fourteen) centuries
with so pure a text.” The Qur’aan was written down during the lifetime and under the supervision
of the Prophet, who himself was illiterate, and it was canonized shortly after his death by a
rigorous method which scrutinized both written and oral traditions. Thus its authenticity is
unblemished, and is its
preservation is seen as the fulfillment of God’s promise:
| “We have, without doubt, sent down the Message, and We will assuredly guard it from corruption.”
The Qur’aan is a book which provides the human being the spiritual and intellectual nourishment
he/she craves. Its major themes include the oneness of God, the purpose of human existence, faith
and God-consciousness, the Hereafter and its significance. The Qur’aan also lays a heavy emphasis
upon reason and understanding. In these spheres of human understanding, the Qur’aan goes beyond
just satisfying the human intellect; it causes one to reflect on implications. There are
Qur’aanic challenges and prophecies. One of the most exciting fields in recent years has been the
discovery that, of the significant amount of
scientific information in the Qur’aan, including the event of the Big Bang, embryological data,
and other information concerning astronomy biology, etc., there is not a single statement that
has not been borne out by modern discoveries In short, the Qur’aan fulfils the heart, the soul,
and the mind. Perhaps the best description of the Qur’aan was given by Ali, the cousin of
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) when he expounded upon it as,
| “The Book of God. In it is the record of what was before you, the judgment of what is among you,
and the prophecies of what will come after you. It is decisive, not a case for levity. Whoever is
a tyrant and ignores the Qur’aan will be destroyed by God. Whoever seeks guidance from other than
it will be misguided. The Qur’aan is the unbreakable bond of connection with God; it is the
remembrance full of wisdom and the straight path. The Qur’aan does not become distorted by
tongues. nor can it be deviated by caprices; it never dulls from repeated study; scholars will
always want more of it. The wonders of the Qur’aan are never ending. Whoever speaks from it will
speak the truth, whoever rules with it will be just, and whoever holds fast to it will be guided
to the straight path.” [Al-Tirmidhi]
The term Sunnah comes from the root word sanna, which means to pave the way or make a path easily
passable, such that it becomes a commonly followed way by everyone afterwards. Thus sunnah can be
used to describe a street or road or path on which people, animals, and cars travel.
Additionally, it can apply to a prophetic way, i.e. the law that they brought and taught as an
explanation or further clarification of a divinely revealed book. Normally, the prophetic way
includes references to his sayings, actions,
physical features and character traits.
From the Islaamic standpoint, Sunnah refers to anything narrated or related about the Prophet
Muhammad (pbuh), authentically traced to him regarding his speech, actions, traits, and silent
approvals, before and after the revelation.
Each narration is composed of two parts: the isnad and the matn. The isnad refers to a chain of
people who narrated a paricular narration. The matn is the actual text of the narration. The
isnad must comprise upright and sincere individuals whose integrity is unquestionable.
The Speech of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
The speech of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) refers to his sayings. For example, he said:
| “Actions are judged by their intentions; everyone will be rewarded according to his/her
intention. So whoever migrates for the sake of Allah and His Prophet then his migration will be
noted as a migration for the sake of Allah and His Prophet. Conversely, one who migrates only to
obtain something worldly or to marry a woman, then his migration will be worth what he had
The Prophet (pbuh) also said:
| Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day, should say something good or keep quiet.|
The above two accounts clearly show that the Prophet (pbuh) spoke these words. Consequently,
these are known as his speech.
The Actions of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
His actions pertain to anything he did, as authentically reported by the Sahabah (Companions).
For instance, Hudhayfah reported that whenever the Prophet (pbuh) got up at night, he would clean
his teeth with a tooth-stick. Also A’ishah reported that the Prophet (pbuh) loved to do
everything starting with the right side – putting on shoes, walking, cleaning himself, and in all
his affairs generally.
The Silent Approvals of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
His silent approvals on different issues meant his not opposing or minding what he saw, heard or
knew of the actions or sayings of his Companions. On one occasion, for example, the Prophet
(pbuh) learned of actions of some of his Companions from other Companions. Soon after the battle
of Khandaq, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) gave the order to the Companions to move quickly to surround
the tribe of Banu Quraydah, encouraging them to hurry so that perhaps they would pray ‘Asr (the
late afternoon prayer) there. Some of the Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) responded immediately
and left without praying ‘Asr. They arrived after sunset, pitched camp and prayed ‘Asr- after
sunset. At the same time another group of Companions formulated their judgment differently. They
thought that the Prophet (pbuh) was merely encouraging them to hasten to their destination,
rather than to delay ‘Asr until after sunset. Consequently, they decided to stay in Madinah until
they had prayed ‘Asr. Immediately thereafter, they hastened towards the tribe of
Banu Quraydhah. When the Prophet (pbuh) was told of how each group responded differently to his
announcement, he (pbuh) affirmed both judgments.
Physical and Moral Traits of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
Everything authentically narrated concerning the Prophet’s complexion and the rest of his
features is also included in the definition of sunnah. Umm Ma’bad described what she saw of the
great Prophet (pbuh). She said:
| “I saw a man, his face radiant with a bright glow, not too thin or too fat, elegant and handsome.
His eyes had a deep black hue with long eyelashes. His voice was pleasant and his neck long. He
had a thick beard. His long black eyebrows were beautifully arched and connected to each other.
In silence, he remained dignified, commanding utmost awe and respect. When he spoke, his speech
was brilliant. Of all people he was the most handsome and the most pleasant, even when
approaching from a distance. In person,
logical arguments were well organized as though they were a string of gems. He was not too tall
or too short, but exactly in between. Among three, he appeared the most radiant and most vibrant.
He had companions who affectionately honored him. When he spoke, they listened to him
attentively. When he gave orders, they were quick to execute them. They rallied around him
guarding him. He never frowned or spoke frivolously.”
Along with his physical features, his Companions also described his habits and behavior with
people. Once Anas reported:
| “I served the Prophet of Allah (pbuh) for ten years. Never once did he so much as express any
bit of displeasure nor did he ever ask ‘Why did you do it?’ for something I did or ‘Why didn’t
you do it?’ for something I didn’t do.”
From the above we can clearly see that when the term sunnah appears in a general context refering
to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) it comprises anything narrated about the Prophet (pbuh) and
authentically traced to him. Once a Muslim learns of the authenticity of any narration, he/she is
obliged to follow and obey it accordingly. Such obedience is mandated by Allah as He declares
| “…and obey Allah and His Prophet and do not turn away when you hear (him speak).” [Qur’aan
At times, some Muslims are perplexed when people say that sunnah is something only recommeded and
is not mandatory. Thus they conclude that we are only required to follow the Qur’an and not the
Sunnah. Such an argument results from a gross misunderstanding. Scholars of Islaamic
jurisprudence use the term sunnah to denote what is authentically established of Prophet Muhammad
(pbuh) in deeds which were not subsequentlly
made mandatory by Allah.
They further hold that this includes any saying of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) where he encourages
Muslims to do a particular task and compliments those who imbibe such attributes. Thus to them,
the term sunnah denotes what is authentically established of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in deeds
which he did voluntarily and which were not subsequently made mandatory by Allah. They further
hold that this includes any saying
of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) where he encourages Muslims to do a particular task and compliments
those who imbibe such attributes. Thus to them, the term sunnah refers to what is “recommended”
and is not mandatory (fard or wajib).
From the above, we can clearly see that the term sunnah takes on different meanings when used by
different Islaamic disciplines.
Freedom of belief is guaranteed in Islaam. It should be very clear that Islaam tolerates not only
other faiths but even its enemies. This is stated clearly in the Qur’aan:
| “God forbids you not with regard to those who fight you not for (your) faith, nor drive you out
of your homes, from dealing kindly and justly with them, for God loves those who are just.”
It is one function of Islaamic law to protect the privileged status of minorities, and this is
non-Muslim places of worship have flourished all over the Islaamic world. Islaamic law also
permits non-Muslim minorities to set up their own courts to implement family laws drawn up by the
minorities themselves and to govern their own affairs.
History provides many examples of Muslim tolerance towards other faiths. When the great leader
and second Caliph, Umar, entered Jerusalem in the year 634, Islaam guaranteed freedom of worship
to all religious communities in the city. In fact, so careful was Umar in setting an example for
his people that he not only went to a church to pray, he prayed outside in the courtyard, lest
his followers after his death be tempted to convert the church into a mosque.
Islaam teaches that the closest to Allah and the most beloved of Allah are those who are the
best in piety. Thus all people, male and female, and regardless of race, color, nationality or
ethnicity, are considered and treated as equal before Allah and before the law. This concept of
tolerance did not reach the West even in theory until the 18th century, and in practice not until
the 20th century.
In the Qur’aan, Allah says:
|“We have sent you (Muhammad) as a mercy for all nations.” [Qur’aan 21:107]|
Thus Islaam is not restricted to any particular race or nation, as many other religions are, but
is universal, meaning that its message applies to all humanity, at all times, in all places.
Since Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was the last prophet and messenger, his message applies to all
future generations. All previous prophets, from Adam, Noah and Abraham to Moses and Jesus, were
| “Not a single messenger did We send before you without this inspiration sent by Us to him – that
there is no god but I, therefore worship and serve Me.” [Qur’aan 21:25]
Since the Qur’aan is the final testament, with every word and every letter unadulterated and
unchanged, and protected by Allah from any change or tampering, it is the final revelation, and
no other law will ever supersede it.
It applies, moreover, to every aspect of one’s daily life, including personal, social, legal,
economic, political, even military. Furthermore, Islaam affects every part of the individual –
physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual.
At a time when the rest of the world, from Greece and Rome to India and China, considered women
as no better than children or even slaves, with no rights whatsoever, Islaam acknowledged women’s
equality with men in a great many respects. The Qur’aan states:
| “And among His signs is this: that He created mates for you form yourselves that you may find
rest, peace of mind in them, and He ordained between you love and mercy. Lo, herein indeed are
signs for people who reflect.” [Qur’aan 30:21]
Prophet Muhammad said:
| “The most perfect in faith amongst believers is he who is best in manners and kindest to his
wife.” [Abu Dawud]
Muslims believe that Adam and Eve were created from the same soul. Both were equally guilty of
their sin and fall from grace, and both were forgiven by Allah. Many women in Islaam have had
high status; consider the fact that the first person to convert to Islaam was Khadijah,the wife
of Muhammad, whom he both loved and respected. His favorite wife after Khadijah’s death, A’isha,
became renowned as a scholar and one of the greatest sources of Hadith literature. Many of the
female Companions accomplished great deeds and achieved fame, and throughout Islaamic history
there have been famous and influential scholars, jurists and mystics.
With regard to education, both women and men have the same rights and obligations. This is clear
Prophet Muhammad’s saying:
| “Seeking knowledge is mandatory for every believer.” [Ibn Majah]|
This implies men and women.
A woman is to be treated as God has endowed her, with rights, such as to be treated as an
individual, with the right to own and dispose of her own property and earnings, enter into
contracts, even after marriage. She has the right to be educated and to work outside the home if
she so chooses. She has the right to inherit from her father, mother, and husband. A very
interesting point to note is that in Islaam, unlike any other religion, a woman can be an imaam,
a leader of communal prayer, for a group of women.
A Muslim woman also has obligations. All the laws and regulations pertaining to prayer, fasting,
charity, pilgrimage, doing good deeds, etc., apply to women, albeit with minor differences having
mainly to do with female physiology.
Before marriage, a woman has the right to choose her husband. Islaamic law is very strict
regarding the necessity of having the woman’s consent for marriage. A marriage dowry is given by
the groom to the bride for her own personal use. She keeps her own family name, rather than
taking her husband’s. As a wife, a woman has the right to be supported by her husband even if she
is already rich. She also has the right to
seek divorce and custody of young children. She does not return the dowry, except in a few
Despite the fact that in many places and times Muslim communities have not always adhered to all
or even many of the foregoing in practice, the ideal has been there for 1,400 years, while
virtually all other major civilzations did not begin to address these issues or change their
negative attitudes until the 19th and 20th centuries, and there are still many contemporary
civilzations which have yet to do so.